1 What Was The Last Common Ancestor Of All Animals Monkey-Style Shaolin Kung Fu: Its Principles and Practice!

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Monkey-Style Shaolin Kung Fu: Its Principles and Practice!

This article examines the monkey’s place in Chinese history, martial arts, and Qigong. Western views of this often rested on outdated, ethnocentric, inaccurate 19th-century perceptions of China that are still (wrongly) considered authoritative in the present day.

Serious martial artists who wish to learn the training, fighting, and health-preserving skills of the agile anthropoid must discard such prejudices. Inevitably, informed sources of Chinese military wisdom, rather than 19th century Eurocentric ignorance, provide the key insights required.

I am indebted to Si Gung Rex Jones and Grandmaster Yap Leong, my two most revered teachers in over 40 years of Martial Arts study, for inspiration, help and encouragement in this area. Grandmaster Yap’s knowledge of Chinese martial arts, their culture, history and interrelationship is truly encyclopedic and both have been taught by contemporary world-renowned Malaysian Grandmasters (1).

Tang, Sung and Ming

The popular Western myth of a great, powerful and unstoppable ape (King Kong) is rooted in the early activities of the Shaolin Temple of the Tang Dynasty. The temple helped reshape China’s future and introduced China and the world to Shaolin Mahayana Buddhism and Kung Fu.

This included the extraordinary achievements of the Monk (and Monkey King/Kung Fu expert) Xuanzhang (596-664 CE) described in the 14th century Ming Dynasty novel Journey to the West by Wu Cheng En. This, the world’s most popular book, describes Xuanzhang’s adventures during his epic journeys to Nepal and beyond in vivid, humorous fashion, contrasting with the dispassionate formality of the official Tang Dynasty historical records of the same events.

During the Ming period (1368-1644 CE) Monkey Kung Fu (Huoquan) was extremely popular and the Shaolin-trained general Zhao Kuang Yin (later Emperor Taizu) the previous founder of the Sung Dynasty also practiced Huoquan along with Kung Fu his fearsome Changquan (‘Long Fist’). Taizu is the Tai Jo (Supreme Founder) of Changquan and the 5 Fist Ancestors (Wu Tzu Quan). Both styles originate from the Sung Dynasty and incorporate key elements of the older (Monkey) style, originating from before the Han Dynasty.

5 Main principles

The strength and Kung Fu skills of high-ranking Monkeys sometimes lead to the status of “Monkey King” according to the 5 main principles:

Similarity; practitioners may look, pose, use limbs, and adopt monkey-like expressions when performing techniques;

The soul; realizing more that ‘similar’ status was necessary, they saw threats and advantages from the Monkey’s point of view that enabled them to successfully apply techniques for attack and defense;

Concentration; like monkeys they could attack continuously, using closely related tactics in series of 3-4 technique, in concentrated volleys.

Footwork; light, fast and noiseless they could evade opponents, sidesteps and missteps in many ways with coordinated body movements;

Versatility; they possessed the speed, bodily agility, and dexterity of movement essential to the Monkey technique.

In general

In 1982, Venerable Master Xiao Yingpeng was the Monkey King of the People’s Republic of China. At the age of 66 (and counting) he continued to win Kung Fu competitions and accolades for his Houquan performances (1). This highlights how Monkey Kung Fu and Qigong, originating from the acute observation of the behavior of Man’s most revered ancestor, can also make a valuable contribution to anti-aging and longevity practice.


(1) ‘Martial Arts Ezine: Red Dragon No.74 November 2012’ features more about these and their ‘monkey business’!

(2) Xi Yuan-tai and Li Xiao-gong (1982) ‘Chinese Kung Fu Series 1: Monkey Style’ Hai Feng (Publishers), Hong Kong

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1 What Makes Man Different From Other Forms Of Animals Don’t Let Anger Sabotage Your Marriage

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Don’t Let Anger Sabotage Your Marriage

Anger is an emotion that everyone experiences from time to time. It is built into our system and has a purpose for our lives. Thomas Fuller called it ‘the lightning of our souls’, as long as it is expressed constructively and does not sabotage our marriage.

Charles Darwin was of the opinion that human behavior contains remnants of responses found in animals or primitive man, necessary for their survival. People being involved in higher beings, these residual responses are hidden in the subconscious and are activated only when provoked. However, not all scientists agree with Darwin. The perceptual-motivational theory is more balanced and acceptable. It suggests that when an individual evaluates a provocative stimulus as pleasant or unpleasant, he or she arouses according to his judgment.

Anger is a special feeling of resentment for a real or imaginary wrong. It causes adrenaline to flow, blood pressure to rise, face to flush and breathing to be difficult. It is an extremely powerful emotion with the potential to destroy marital happiness and interpersonal relationships.

Different ways to express anger:

• Open hostility towards the spouse. Men who beat their wives are said to be angry, resentful, suspicious and moody. Although they may behave well in public, the home is the arena where they display their darker side.

But anger is not just a male trait. Even women can get angry. While they may not be physically strong enough to attack their husbands, they can be abusive and abusive. Verbal abuse is very high in urban situations. Its effects last much longer than physical abuse. Many families have a ‘hot temper’ problem.

Abraham Lincoln’s wife, Mary Todd Lincoln was believed to have a hot temper. She not only abused, but physically abused her husband with firewood, or hit him with potatoes. On one occasion, she even chased him around the yard at Springwell, with a kitchen knife. Even after she became First Lady and moved into the White House, staffers were horrified by her sharp tongue.

Anger can also take a subtle form of smothered love, where the husband coddles his wife and does things for her while totally isolating her and stifling her competence and creativity.

• Crying or crying when angry is sometimes a woman’s way of expressing anger.

• Staying silent, stifling anger and letting it build up inside like a smoldering volcano waiting to erupt. This will manifest itself in altered physiological functioning and consequently ill health. A study by an independent research firm in Wisconsin looked at marital discord and its effect on heart disease and overall mortality. They found that those who continued to suppress their anger activated stress hormones that negatively affected health. Heart attacks, irritable bowel syndrome, hypertension may occur. Surface symptoms of gastric ulcer in those who constantly suppress anger. One surgeon said that 97% of his ulcer patients were angry people.

Prolonged emotional tension can also cause changes in behavior. Adolf Meyer describes the role of emotional factors in physical and mental health as psycho-parallelism.

• Harmful attitudes such as withdrawal, poor job application, inability to keep up with colleagues and also difficulty keeping a job.

The results of uncontrolled anger.

1. Marital conflict: Anger threatens the unity and stability of families. In some families, quarrels are a habit. Both spouses may have short fuses. Children begin to ape their parents.

2. Strained Relationships: Anger patterns can become destructive and ugly.

3. Child Abuse: Angry parents may viciously attack their children. The incidence of child abuse by parents is escalating and is not limited to the lower socio-economic groups. Children who grow up in such an atmosphere turn into angry adults. They react in three ways – passive resistance with silence and non-cooperation, revenge or open rebellion.

What causes anger?

• Frustration: Feeling misunderstood or taken for granted; Needs are not met. Sometimes anger can be disproportionate to the actual provocation.

• Fear of violence, illness, job loss or loss of a loved one.

• Hurt by the indifference of the one you love. It can be emotional, physical or relational.

• Fatigue: Overwhelmed with work, stress, lack of appreciation and injustice.

Anger management at home.

1. Understand anger: It is a natural component of all relationships. In their book Pressure Point, Oliver and Wright state that “disagreements in relationships are inevitable and a fundamental part of achieving intimacy.” So one must find healthy ways to express anger. Spouses must understand and appreciate their differences. Such an attitude will lead to intimacy.

2. Fight constructively: Couples must learn to vent anger without tearing down each other’s self-esteem. Those who learn to fight constructively will ensure the longevity of their marriage. However, frequent disagreements will surely weaken the bonds of love.

3. Honesty: Admit that you are angry. Analyze the reasons for your anger. What caused it?

4. Avoid arguments in the heat of the moment. Solve things when you are in a better mood. Ask yourself if you are at fault too. Denying your part in the dispute makes problem solving difficult. Healthy arguments testify to a strong marriage. But the blame game is dangerous. Disagree without hurting each other.

5. Check your language. Take a deep breath and psyche yourself up to relax. “A fool gives vent to his anger, but a wise man keeps himself under control.” (Proverbs 29:11) Sometimes, stepping away from the scene gives a better perspective of the problem. Yoga and meditation have helped people take control of their temper.

6. Listen to each other. It is very important to understand the other person’s point of view. “Couples who vent their anger and do nothing to address the issue are committing marital suicide,” says Broderick.

7. Sublimation of anger through physical exercise, creative activities, or some other form of recreation helps diffuse anger. Such activities take the sting out of this explosive emotion and help one discuss issues with a calmer attitude. Negotiation and problem solving are then possible.

8. Resolve never to go to sleep with anger in your heart. Deal with your spouse before turning in for the night. As the Bible says: “In your anger, do not sin; do not let the sun go down when you are angry, and do not give the devil a foothold.” (Ephesians 4:26, 27.)

9. Forgiveness will lead to the restoration of broken relationships. Holding a grudge puts a heavy burden on the heart. The pain becomes magnified and unbearable. By forgiving, we stop hurting ourselves and the other person. Abraham Lincoln was able to live with his abusive wife because of a spirit of forgiveness. This made him patient and tolerant.

Forgiveness must also mean letting go of the offense and making a promise never to use it as a weapon in any subsequent quarrel. Forgiveness is hard. It can only be done by the grace of God. “Forgive as God forgives you.” The sense of peace that follows is indescribable.

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1 What Animal Symbolizes Your Method For Dealing With Conflict Common Interview Questions and How to Answer Them Effectively

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Common Interview Questions and How to Answer Them Effectively

For a newbie, it is always a scary thing to imagine all the horrible questions one will face at their interview. It can be daunting to imagine the worst, or to wade through hundreds of “suggested” questions one could Google. To ease those pre interview jitters, and to give fresh B-school graduates a quick peek into what to expect, here is a list of some very common interview questions, with some suggestions about how to answer them effectively. Practice these, get comfortable with the questions and research and tailor your answers to them, before interview season. This is sure to get you feeling far more confident, and take away the burden of coming up with answers on the spot. That would, in turn, leave your mental RAM free to concentrate on the specific ones, the googlys, and the twisters!

Can you tell me a little bit/something about yourself?

This is an old, tried and tested favourite of interviewers. Often asked at the beginning of an interview, this can be your opportunity to give a short pitch which can interest them in who you are. What they really want to know is whether you would be an excellent fit for the job. This is Not the place to just repeat what is in your CV. They’ve seen it, they have it in front of them. This is your chance to display other information and qualities. Try to answer by sharing some of your personal interests and experiences that don’t relate directly to work, but showcase some useful skill or attitude. This can be a favorite hobby or what motivates you, or interesting life experiences. This question can seem simple and lead to people rambling, but it is a crucial gateway. Try to let your answer show them exactly why you’re the right person for the job. Limit yourself to 2-3 specific accomplishments or experiences that showcase some necessary skills for the interviewer and try to provide important and relevant highlights from your background which show your suitability for the role. This helps to make you more memorable to the interviewer.

Another version of this question may be “How would you describe yourself?”

Always remember that when interviewers are asking you to talk about yourself, about something personal to you and not just job skills, they are checking how your qualities and characteristics, your personality, align with the skills they requirefor the job role. Follow the guidelines given above.

What makes you unique?

Employers often ask this as a way to identify why you might be more qualified than other candidates they’re interviewing. Focus your answer on why hiring you would benefit the employer. As you don’t know the other applicants, it can be challenging to think about your answer in relation to theirs. Addressing why your background makes you a good fit will let employers know why your traits and qualifications make you well prepared. If you do not have much work experience to draw from, bring up a life event that showcases necessary skills.

Example: “What makes me unique is my experience of four years in retail. Because I’ve had first-hand experience fielding shoppers’ questions, feedback and complaints, I know what customers want. I know what it takes to create a positive consumer experience through marketing.”

What do you know about the company?

DO YOUR HOMEWORK. Do due research about a company BEFORE you appear for an interview, and the research should not be just about memorizing the company’s “About” page. This question is how interviewers check whether you really care about the job at all, and whether you are willing to do the hard work for it. Read up on relevant news articles, do background research into the company’s history and even bring up any controversies, if you like. The idea here is not a show of some kind of loyalty or “jihuzoori”, but to show them your research skills and your dedication to actually do the research.

Why do you want this job?

Companies want to hire candidates who are passionate about the job, so prepare your answer about why you want this particular position, carefully. Do some research to be clear about the role, the actual work involved, and identify a few key factors and skills that are required for it and which make the job a great fit for you (e.g., “I love customer support because I love the human interaction and I find great satisfaction in helping others to solve problems”). Also bring up the company research you have done, draw from it and mention why you would love to work for this particular company in this specific role (e.g., “I’ve always been passionate about education, and I think you guys are doing great things, so I want to be a part of it”).

This is a great opportunity to show them that you took the time to research the company and thought about why you would be a good fit. Mention the aspects of the company that appeal to you and align with your career goals. Employers want to know that you are confident that you will fit in very quickly. So do research and talk about the company culture, about why others seem to enjoy working there. Make sure you sound genuine, and not as if you are reading a script.

Example: “The company’s mission to help college graduates pay off their student loans speaks to me. I’ve been in that situation and I’d love the opportunity to work with a company that’s making a difference. Finding a company with a positive work environment and values that align with my own has remained a priority throughout my job search and this company ranks at the top of the list.”

Why should we hire you?

This question seems quite rude and intimidating, but if they are asking it, consider yourself lucky. This is the perfect opportunity to sell yourself and your skills. Your job here is to come up with an answer covering three things– that you can do the work, you can deliver great results, and that you’ll really fit in with the team and the company culture. This is the chance to prove that you are likely to be a better option than any of the other candidates.Your answer should address the skills and experience you offer and focus on why you’re a good culture fit.What they want to know is whether you have all the required qualifications. Make your response a confident, concise, focused sales pitch that explains what you have to offer.

Example: “You should hire me because my experience is almost perfectly aligned with the requirements you asked for in your job listing. I have seven years’ progressive experience in the hospitality industry, advancing from my initial role as a front desk associate with Excalibur Resort and Spa to my current position there as a concierge. I’m well-versed in providing world-class customer service to an upscale clientele, and I pride myself on my ability to quickly resolve problems so that our guests enjoy their time with us.”

Example: “I have a passion for application development that’s grown stronger over the course of my five-year career. The company’s mission aligns with my personal values and from my limited time in the office, I can already tell this is the sort of positive culture in which I would thrive. I want to work for a company that has the potential to reshape the industry and I believe you’re doing just that.”

What are your greatest strengths?

Employers ask questions like this to determine how well qualified you may be for the position. When answering this question, it is important to be accurate (share your true strengths, not those you think the interviewer wants to hear); relevant (choose your strengths that are most targeted to this particular position); and specific (for example, instead of “people skills,” choose “persuasive communication” or “relationship building”). Follow up with examples from work or life that show how you’ve demonstrated these traits.This question gives you an opportunity to talk about your technical and soft skills. To answer, share qualities and personal attributes and then relate them back to the role for which you’re interviewing.

Example: “As a cyber security specialist, my greatest strength is my intellectual curiosity. I enjoy researching the latest technology trends so that our critical information technology systems remain uncompromised. Not only do I do this by reading the latest issues of cyber security journals, I also convinced my employer to fund my participation in quarterly information technology conferences. This has allowed me to build a network of peer resources-many of whom are leaders in the field-that I can call upon for strategies when new threats arise to our systems. “

Example:”I’m a natural problem solver. I find it rewarding to dig deep and uncover solutions to challenges. It’s like solving a puzzle. It’s something I’ve always excelled at and something I enjoy. Much of product development is about finding innovative solutions to challenging issues, which is what drew me to this career path in the first place.”

What do you consider to be your weaknesses?

What your interviewer is really trying to do with this question-beyond identifying any major red flags-is to gauge your self-awareness and honesty. So, “I can’t meet a deadline to save my life” is not an option-but neither is “Nothing! I’m perfect!” Strike a balance by thinking of something that you struggle with but that you’re working to improve. For example, maybe you’ve never been strong at public speaking, but you’ve recently volunteered to run meetings to help you be more comfortable when addressing a crowd.It can feel awkward to discuss your weaknesses in an environment where you’re expected to focus on your accomplishments. However, when answered correctly, sharing your weaknesses can show that you are self-aware and want to continuously get better at your job-traits that are extremely attractive to most employers. Remember to start with the weakness and then discuss the measures you’ve taken to improve. This way, you’re finishing your answer on a positive note. Share examples of skills you have improved, providing specific instances of how you have recognized a weakness and taken steps to correct it.

Example: “My greatest weakness used to be procrastination. Friends who knew my work style would tease me, saying, “Panic precipitates performance.” In college, I was the person who pulled all-nighters to finish their essay right before deadline. This isn’t as irresponsible as it sounds-from the moment I’m assigned a project, I’m thinking about it. Most of my first and second drafts get composed mentally, so it’s only a matter of writing down the final draft. And, since I have an excellent command of grammar, I don’t have to spend much time proofreading or revising.However, after I landed my first job as a content writer, it became clear that while this process worked for me (I’ve never missed a deadline), it made my editor extremely nervous. And so I’ve learned to set “early” deadlines for myself, at least 24 hours before the actual deadline, so that my projects now always arrive with plenty of time to spare. “

Example: “I sometimes have trouble saying ‘no’ and end up overwhelmed by my workload. Earlier in my career, I would take on so many projects that I’d work evenings and weekends. It was stressful. I realised this was counterproductive so I started using workload management tools and setting better expectations for myself and my teammates.”

What do you consider to be your greatest achievement?

Nothing says “hire me” better than a track record of achieving amazing results in past jobs, so don’t be shy when answering this interview question! A great way to do so is by using the S-T-A-R method: Set up the situation and the task that you were required to complete to provide the interviewer with background context (e.g., “In my last job as a junior analyst, it was my role to manage the invoicing process”), but spend the bulk of your time describing what you actually did (the action) and what you achieved (the result). For example, “In one month, I streamlined the process, which saved my group 10 person-hours each month and reduced errors on invoices by 25%.” Life experiences work just as well, and a major hurdle overcome, or weakness corrected can show you in a very good light.

Tell me about a challenge or conflict you’ve faced, and how you handled it.

This is almost a variation of the previous question. While asking behavioral questions such as this, the interviewer wants to get a sense of how you will respond to conflict. Anyone can seem nice and pleasant in a job interview, but what will happen if you’re hired and some colleague starts being obstructive or rude? How would you handle that?Describe a difficult work situation or project and how you overcame it.Again, use the S-T-A-R method, being sure to focus on how you handled a similar situation professionally and productively, and close the story with a happy ending, like how you came to a resolution or compromise.It’s important to share details to make the story believable and engaging.

Example: “I think the most difficult situation I face as a production manager is when I have to lay off staff, either because they aren’t doing their job properly or, even worse, because sales are down. When I can, I try to work with underperforming personnel to see if we can’t improve their efficiency. If not, then I hand them their pink slip and give them straightforward reasons for why they are being laid off. No one wants to be fired without an explanation. When this happens, I keep my tone polite and avoid using too many “you” statements; I absolutely do not want to cast shame on them.”

Where do you see yourself in five years?

If asked this question, be honest and specific about your future goals, but consider this: A hiring manager wants to know a) if you’ve set realistic expectations for your career, b) if you have ambition (a.k.a., this interview isn’t the first time you’re considering the question), and c) if the position aligns with your goals and growth. Your best bet is to think realistically about where this position could take you and answer along those lines. For that, you must again be sure to do some research on the growth patterns and verticals within the company and know roughly where a good performance can get you in the specified time. And if the position isn’t necessarily a one-way ticket to your aspirations? It’s OK to say that you’re not quite sure what the future holds, but that you see this experience playing an important role in helping you make that decision.Understanding how you imagine your life in the future can help employers understand whether the trajectory of the role and company fits in with your personal development goals. Talk about the skills you want to develop, the types of roles you would like to be in and the things you would like to accomplish.Consider this – In five years, you should have made a significant impact to the company’s bottom line. Think about how you can achieve this in the role you’re interviewing for. In technology careers, advancing your skills is important, too. You should be able to share what areas you want to strengthen in the near term.

Example: “In five years, I’d like to be an industry expert in my field with the ability to train and mentor students and entry-level designers. I would also like to gain specialised knowledge in user experience to be a well-rounded contributor working with design and marketing teams on large scale projects that make a difference in the company and to the global community.”

What’s your dream job?

Along similar lines as the above, through this question the interviewer wants to uncover whether this position is really in line with your ultimate career goals. While “I want to be a Bollywood star” might get you a few laughs, it won’t get you hired. It is better to talk about realistic goals and ambitions-and why this job will get you closer to them.

What are your goals for the future?

This follows from the previous question, in a way, although it can be a standalone. Hiring managers ask about your future goals to determine whether or not you’re looking to stay with the company in the long term. This question is also used to gauge your ambition, expectations for your career and your ability to plan ahead. The best way to handle this question is to determine your current career trajectory and how this role plays into helping you reach your ultimate goals. Again – research. Keep your answer focused on the job and the company, and reiterate to the interviewer that the position aligns with your long-term goals.

Example: “I’m someone who likes stability. My goal is to find a job that I can hold long term with a local company, becoming a valued employee as I gradually advance to positions of increasing authority and responsibility. I’m extremely interested in the teller job here at First Financial Credit Union because of your internal training program. My long-term goal is to eventually become a branch manager after I’ve proven my competencies in customer service and team leadership.”

Example: “I would like to continue developing my marketing expertise as well as my leadership skills over the next several years. One of the reasons I’m interested in working for a fast-growing start-up company is that I’ll have the ability to wear many hats and collaborate with many different departments. I believe this experience will serve me well in achieving my ultimate goal of leading a marketing department someday.”

Tell me about a time when you exercised leadership.

Depending on what’s more important for the role, you should choose an example that showcases your project management skills (spearheading a project from end to end, juggling multiple moving parts) or one that shows your ability to confidently and effectively rally a team. And remember that the best stories include enough detail to be believable and memorable, so pick a situation where you led, and show how you were a leader in this situation and how it represents your overall leadership experience and potential.

How do you deal with pressure or stressful situations?

Choose an answer that shows that you can meet a stressful situation head-on in a productive, positive manner and let nothing stop you from accomplishing your goals. A great approach is to talk through your go-to stress-reduction tactics (making the world’s greatest to-do list, stopping to take 10 deep breaths, singing, listening to calming music, whatever works for you), and then share an example of a stressful situation you navigated with ease. They want to know what you would do when things don’t go smoothly at work. How you would deal with difficult situations. How you handle workplace stress. Avoid claiming that you never, or rarely, experience stress, that’s not realistic. Tailor your answer in a way that acknowledges workplace stress and explains how you’ve overcome it, or even used it to your advantage.

Example: “I’m not someone who is energized by or thrives in stressful environments. My first step in managing stress is to try to circumvent it by keeping my work processes very organized, and my attitude professional. When customers or associates come to me with issues, I try to look at things from their perspective, and initiate a collaborative problem-solving approach to keep the situation from escalating. I find that maintaining an efficient, congenial office with open lines of communication automatically reduces a lot of workplace stress. Of course, sometimes unanticipated stressors will arise. When this happens, I just take a deep breath, remembering that the person I’m dealing with is frustrated with a situation, not with me. I then actively listen to their concerns and make a plan to resolve the issue as quickly as possible.”

What are your salary expectations?

The #1 rule of answering this question is not answering it in the first round. Just say something like I would like to be paid according to the market normal.

For further rounds, when this actually comes into the negotiation phase, do your research on what you should be paid. Find out the market average for your position and experience. You’ll likely come up with a range, and we recommend stating the highest number in that range that applies, based on your experience, education, and skills. Then, make sure the hiring manager knows that you’re flexible. You’re communicating that you know your skills are valuable, but that you want the job and are willing to negotiate.

What do you like to do outside of work?

Interviewers ask personal questions in an interview to see if candidates will fit in with the culture and to give them the opportunity to open up and display their personality. In other words, if someone asks about your hobbies outside of work, it’s totally OK to open up and share what really makes you tick. (Do keep it semi-professional, though: Saying you like to have a few beers at the local hot spot on Saturday night is fine. Telling them that Monday is usually a rough day for you because you’re always hungover is not.)

If you were an animal, which one would you want to be?

Seemingly random personality-test type questions like these come up in interviews generally because hiring managers want to see how you can think on your feet. There’s no wrong answer here, but you’ll immediately gain bonus points if your answer helps you share your strengths or personality or connect with the hiring manager. You can also use a stalling tactic to buy yourself some thinking time by saying something like, “Now, that is a great question. I think I would have to say… “

What do you think we could do better or differently?

This is a common one at startups, but can also come from established MNCs, just to see how much you have understood about their way of doing business. Hiring managers want to know that you have done your homework. That you not only have some background on the company, but that you’re able to think critically about it and come to the table with new ideas. So, come up with some new ideas! What new features would you love to see? How could the company increase conversions? How could customer service be improved? You don’t need to have the company’s four-year strategy figured out, but do share your thoughts, and more importantly, show how your interests and expertise would lend themselves to the job.

What motivates you?

Employers ask this question to gauge your level of self-awareness and ensure your sources of motivation align with the role. To answer, be as specific as possible, provide real-life examples and tie your answer back to the job role.

Example: “Making a true difference in the lives of my patients and their families motivates me to strive for excellence in everything I do. I look forward to seeing my patients’ reaction when we get a positive outcome that will change their lives forever. That’s why I became a nurse and why I’m pursuing a position in pediatrics.”

Tell Me About a Time You Failed

This is a common interview question that employers ask to see how you handle failure, which is inevitable. Do you get angry and frustrated and give up? Are you able to learn from your mistakes and bounce back when things don’t go your way?They also want to see if you can own-up to having failed and can hold yourself accountable and actually admit to your failures.So when you answer, there are some important things to do. Make sure to admit to a real failure. Describe the situation and explain what went wrong. Show that you take responsibility for the failure, rather than blaming others, and explain what you learned from the experience. Talk about how you used that lesson to get a different outcome the next time you were presented with a similar challenge (e.g. how you turned a past failure into a future success).

Example: “In my most recent position, I had recently been promoted to Supervisor, and was managing the department on my own right before the department closed. An employee was acting out and I confronted him in front of everybody. It made the situation worse and caused a lot of distraction for every employee on the floor. I failed to lead properly in this situation, and spoke to my manager the next day to discuss what I could have done differently. We both agreed that I should have handled this in-private with the employee, by asking them to step inside my office with me. If I had done this instead of reacting the way I did, the situation would have turned out much better. From that point onward, I am always conscious of whether a discussion with a team member should occur in public or behind closed doors, and it made me a better leader.”

What are you passionate about?

Much like the question about motivation or hobbies, employers might ask what you are passionate about to better understand what drives you and what you care most deeply about. This can help them understand whether you are a good fit for the role and if it fits into your larger goals. To answer, select something you are genuinely passionate about, explain why you’re passionate about it, give examples of how you’ve pursued this passion and relate some of the learnings from it back to the job.

Example: “As an experienced, service-oriented professional with more than a decade of experience working in boutique salons, I thrive on creating a welcoming environment for all clients and providing the highest quality skincare services. My specialised training, along with my interpersonal skills, has helped me become adept at developing long-term, trusted relationships that help to build a loyal client base. These relationships are the reason I’m excited to go to work every day.”

Do you have any questions for us?

You probably already know that an interview isn’t just a chance for a hiring manager to grill you-it’s your opportunity to sniff out whether a job is the right fit for you. What do you want to know about the position? The company? The department? The team?You’ll cover a lot of this in the actual interview, so have a few less-common questions ready to go. Questions targeted to the interviewer are especially valuable (“What’s your favorite part about working here?”) as are questions about the company’s growth (“What can you tell me about your new products or plans for growth?”)This might be one of the most important questions coming from them during the interview process because it allows you to explore any subject that hasn’t been addressed so far and shows the interviewer you’re excited about the role. By this point, you’ll likely have already covered most of the basics about the position and the company so take time to ask the interviewer questions about their own experiences with the company and gain tips on how you can succeed if hired.This is your chance to “interview the interviewer.” In essence, to learn about the company, the role, the corporate culture, the manager’s leadership style, and a host of other important things.Candidates who are genuinely interested in the opportunity, ask these types of questions. Those who don’t ask questions give the impression they’re “just kicking the tires” or not really too concerned about getting the job. Make sure your questions show that you did some research about the company. This is also a good opportunity to add something else (related, but interesting) about you. This question and your question in response can prompt a good discussion, which creates a VERY positive impact in the interviewer’s mind.Remember to close with something like “After discussing this job, I feel as if I would be a perfect fit for it. I’m curious to know if there is anything I said or DID NOT say that would make you believe otherwise.”The answer you get to this question may open the door to mentioning something you did not get to talk about during the interview or clarify any potential misconception over something that was covered.

Example: “What do you love about working for this company? What would success look like in this role? What are some of the challenges people typically face in this position?”

You can ask about the work, the training, the challenges you’d face, the overall direction of the company.Don’t ask about salary, benefits, time off, or anything that isn’t related to the work. Wait for them to bring it up, or until you know they want to offer you the position.

Ask about the company, the team, and most importantly – the specific job

Ask about things you heard during the interview that you’d like more information about

Ask about the interview process: (e.g. “when will I hear feedback, and who will be in touch after this?”)

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1 Name Two Types Of Carbohydrates Found In Animal Foods Is Your Dog Eating Poop? – 9 Causes and How to Put Put a Stop to this Disgusting Behavior

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Is Your Dog Eating Poop? – 9 Causes and How to Put Put a Stop to this Disgusting Behavior

Eating their own or another dog’s poop is not only a disgusting bad habit that many dogs pick up, but it can also be an indicator of health problems.

Abnormal digestive behavior such as eating feces, stones, iron, glass, ice, screws, gravel, dirt, or simply eating abnormal amounts of food can be associated with PICA (Pie-Kuh) — persistent swallowing of non-food materials or Coprophagia (polic -ra-FAY-jee-a)–swallowing of feces.

According to the Merck Veterinary Manual, PICA and Coprophagia can be signs of behavioral problems such as obsessive compulsive disorder. However, some animal studies by holistic veterinarians suggest that a lack of nutrition may also be the culprit.

Although your dog can eat a balanced diet of wet and dry food, the ability of your dog’s digestive system to properly absorb the nutrients in kibble may be less than adequate. Dogs are instinctively driven to scavenge or forage to meet their needs and will often turn to things like feces, vomit and rotting meat to find these valuable nutrients.

Certain foods that are difficult for a dog to fully digest, such as carrots and grain-based foods, can trigger the dog to ingest feces. A low-carb, high-protein diet can help improve your dog’s ability to digest food and produce stools that are less palatable.

Many holistic veterinarians suggest supplementing your dog’s diet with enzymes such as those found in Prozyme. Others suggest using herbs such as ginger or cinnamon in small amounts (1/8 to 1/4 teaspoon) sprinkled on their food to make the poop less palatable. Adding pineapple, spinach, garlic, and squash, in small amounts, to your dog’s food can also help make feces less desirable to eat.

If you have a dog that eats its own or other animals’ feces, you should first have them checked by a qualified veterinarian. Coprophagia may simply be due to a lack of nutrients, however, there are many other possible causes including Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency (the inability of the pancreas to produce enough digestive enzymes), Pancreatitis (an inflamed pancreas ) and intestinal infections.

While feces may provide the nutrients the dog requires, they may also contain parasites such as roundworms or whipworms and may lead to other more serious medical disorders.

There are three types of Coprophagia:

Autocoprophagia – when a dog participates in eating his or her own feces.

Intraspecific coprophagy – when a dog participates by eating the feces of another animal of his or her own species.

Interspecific coprophagy – when a dog participates in eating the droppings of another animal species, such as cat droppings or deer and rabbit droppings.

Other reasons for eating a dog’s poop include the need for attention, (even if it’s due to discipline from their owner), copying other animals who are busy eating poop, following the mother’s instinct to cleaned, or simply not feeding enough for it. satisfy their appetite.

Whatever the reason, it may be more than just a disgusting habit and should be investigated to ensure your dog’s health.

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1 How Do Animal Call System Differ From Human Language The Problem of Rationality in the History of African Philosophy

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The Problem of Rationality in the History of African Philosophy


The discourse on problem of rationality in African Philosophy has been associated historically with two related happenings: Western discourse in Africa and the African response to it . The Western discourse had come in form of such notorious proclamations and claims as “reason is Greek”, “emotion is African”, which meant to them that Africans are not rational . Yet to some, it further meant that African beliefs are neither rational nor irrational because the categories of rationality just do not apply to them . For another set like the postmodernists, the concept of rationality does not apply to Africa, since the concept is a contested one that presupposes a language game with its complete rules that do not apply across languages and cultures; African was supposedly one of such languages and cultures. This according to Akinwande Oluwole Soyinka can be described as hyperbolic weapons that were figured in the heat of contestation.

The African response has come in different forms and dimensions, with the African nationalists, postcolonial African leaders, pan-Africanists, scholars, writers and traditionalist in the fore front. The response has sought to reafricanize the ‘natives’, to strip them of the alienations of Western modernity that had as it were, made them a people with no identity and hope, and to force them to return to the ‘authentic’ and pristine values of a pre-colonial past. They have sought to disprove what Paul Tiyambe calls the Western excessive rationality that has portrayed their image as that of rational excellence, and to free Africans from its materialism, moral decadence and lifelessness; alienation from nature and propensity for destructiveness. This has formed the basis for the rationality debate.

The rationality problem is therefore the problem of how to determine the place and status of Africa and African knowledge in the great debate on the concept of reason. It is the question of critically analyzing the conceptual issues, implied in the distinction between the civilized and the uncivilized, the logical and the pre-logical or mystical. It suffices to say that Africa today has been greatly determined by this distinction.

However, the writer believes that the Africans’ responses and demonstrations of rationality has not really debunked or disproved completely such classification of Africans as prelogical, instead, further justified the classification and claims. The major focus of this paper would be to seek various ways, if any that Africa can in this twenty first century demonstrate rationality.

The Emergence of a Dominant Rationality

The rationality debate or problem is understood as the theoretical and practical dimensions depicting the individual’s role and impact in the shaping of one’s identity and destiny, and control of history and other cultural values. It is the estimation of the basis and merits of cultural norms and the clarification of the supremacy of contending images of man. The debate evolved as claims and counter-claims, justifications and alienations, passed between the two camps: western and non-western . To a large extent, the debate about African philosophy can be summarized as a significant contribution to the discussion and definition of reason or what Hegel called the Reason. Indeed, it is commonly referred to as the “rationality debate”.

Defining Rationality

The question of how to define the criteria of rationality has become a central theme in Anglophone philosophy. It has occupied debates among social anthropologists, sociologists, and philosophers of science. On one side are the foundationalists who argue that formal rational procedures are the defining feature of science, which supersedes common sense and is universal. On one side of the divide are the pluralists, who argue in favour of the diversity of human experience and systems of representation. Most African cultural relativists fall under the later category, predicated on their conception of culture as a people’s experience and ways of life. Given that different people would have divers and sometimes unrelated experiences, it is believed that their attitudes towards life and issues of life would also differ, and this according to them, cannot be overlooked in adjudging a people’s rationality.

The origin of the English word “rational” is the Latin word “ratio” which can be translated as “reason” in English. A rational action or belief going by this is one, which is reasonable, the one concerning only good reasons for acceptance . This being the case, we can say then that a rational action is one that has a reason, after all being reasonable means to have a reason, in most cases good reasons. Since an action is rational when it is reasonable, it follows that if a reasonable action is that which make sense, and then a rational action will also be that which makes sense. In other words, it is the power resident in human beings enabling them to make discrimination concerning reality which aids greatly any process decision making and rational judgment. We could have or lack reasons for upholding any particular belief; we act rationally when we maintain consistent beliefs, and irrationally when we don’t. To a large extent this determines our actions.

It can also be held that the availability of evidence supporting our beliefs also forms a basis to adjudge rationality. These beliefs in themselves have no element of rationality and this implies that their rationality is determined externally. However, this can constitute some problems, as much as it proves its relativity. One of such problems is evident in Gordon Reddiford’s conception of rationality as consistency of beliefs with actions. According to him,

…The way in which we come to hold our beliefs, in our attitudes to the evidence for example, and further to the procedures we adopt in maintaining or rejecting them. Thus to ascribe rationality is to comment on our success or failure in continuing to subject them to scrutiny in attempting to maintaining consistency particularly when we express our beliefs in action .

This position poses a serious moral problem; that of justifying as rational, an immoral belief which is expressed consistently in actions. Would Reddiford adjudge as rational Hitler’s killing of the Jews predicated on the belief that they are Chicken? Or does a mere consistency between a reason and an action make that action and belief rational or good? The problems associated with the definition of ‘good’ would cause a rather quick abandonment of such definitions of rationality; they are rather sophistry than normative.

Another Western scholar Steven Lukes, identifies criteria which a set of beliefs has to satisfy for them to be adjudged rational. Among these are that; (i) such systems are logical, that is consistent and admit no contradiction (ii) they are not wholly or partially false, (iii) not nonsensical (iv) not situationally specific or ad hoc, enduring just for a very short time that is must be universalisable . Among all the criteria listed above, the criterion of logicality stands out. For if a belief is illogical one can rightly infer that it is nonsensical, partially or wholly false, and inconsistent. The criteria of logicality was first formulated by Aristotle, as Sogolo opines,

Aristotle was the first philosopher to systematize all forms of positive thinking about thought the result of which was the invention of formal logic .

Since the formulation of formal logic by Aristotle, it has remained indispensable for correct thinking and thus has been described as the systematic formulation of instinctive logic of common sense . The fundamental laws in formal logic as formulated by Aristotle are (i) the law of identity which simply states that a thing is equal or identical with itself (A equal A) (ii) the law of contradiction. Strictly speaking, it is a negative formulation of the first law. The law of contradiction states, that a thing cannot be unequal to or different from itself; (A is not none-A) (iii) the law of excluded middle. This particular law of formal logic combines the first and the second. It states that if a thing is equal to itself, it cannot be unequal to or different from itself (if A equal A, it cannot be equal non-A)

The formulation of the Aristotelian logic was meant to serve as a standard, a yardstick for adjudging the intelligibility or otherwise of a thought system, and therefore normative. Scholars of different ages, like Evans Pritchard, Martin Hollis, Steve Lukes, etc, felt the inclination to insist that for any form of thought or action to be adjudged intelligible or rational, it has to conform to the rules of formal logic. That therefore meant to them that any thought system that seems contrary to this formulation is irrational. This was the mission that Bruhl set out to execute in his bifurcation of societies.

The Bruhlian Socio-cognitive Bifurcationism

The image of the ‘scientific society’ set out to be projected by the intellectual school pioneered by Tylor and other sociologists such as Levy Bruhl, as well as Evan Pritchard, Martin Hollis and Steven Lukes, is that of rational excellence; the very paradigm of institutionalized rationality. It is on this Eurocentric posture that Levy Bruhl bifurcated of the human society into two categories: those of a ‘primitive mentality’ and those with a ‘civilized mentality’. Africa by this classification falls under the former category. Levy Bruhl describes a ‘pre-logical thought’ as one that is unscientific, uncritical and contains evident contradictions. People with such thought differ not in degree but in quality from those with logical mind.

The pre-logical mentality connotes that the Africans are not a race different from the animals. This speculation about the Africans as inferior and savages was intertextually entrenched within the universal discourse of the French, British and German enlightenment thinkers. The African thought system has been adjudged irrational because according to Bruhl, it is insensitive to the rules of formal logic as formulated by Aristotle. Hollis states that these rules render it possible to make trans-cultural and comparative judgments as to the degree of rationality and irrationality in a belief and action system . Hence Levy-Bruhl found contradictions in assertions such as when the Nuer say “twins are birds”. From Levy-Bruhl’s point of view it is a clear violation of the rules of logic, which do not permit a thing to be itself and yet another thing. The Nuer is therefore involved in contradiction by saying that a twin is a twin (A is A) and at the same time that a twin is a bird (A is non- A) .

On the surface, it would seem that Levy Bruhl made an honest and innocent observation about the thought system of the Nuer people, though such an interpretation would be inevitable, following the Aristotelian logic. But for the Nuer people the saying “twins are birds”, means that birds unlike other creatures that crawl on the earth surface, are seen as divine creatures from above because they fly. Therefore twins according to them are likened as birds, special gifts from God, precious to man.

Such saying, it would be observed are common among Africans. For instance, the Igbos in Nigeria would say “Uwaa bu popo”, meaning that this life is Pawpaw, especially ripped pawpaw. This life likened to a ripped pawpaw that would break in to pices when it falls. This is a mere use of metaphor, which interestingly abounds in the Western literary expressions and thought system. For instance, the expression, ‘that man is a lion’, is no violation of any rule of formal logic, but simply likens the man to a lion-strong, fearless and courageous. Hence, Levy Bruhl’s misinterpretation of the Nuer’s saying was never an oversight, rather an orchestrated attempt to devalue the Africaness of the Africans with the view to fostering a Western control and determination of Africa’s destiny and identity. Therefore the denial of Africans of rationality by the West- Levy Bruhl, Hegel and the rest, rests on a prejudice against the Africans.

This Western attitude according to Masolo “…had started as a mere cultural bias, supported loosely by a racist or orthodox biblical ideology, which gradually grew into a formidable two-pronged historical realities, slavery and slave trade on the one hand and academic expressions on the other . What Masolo calls the ‘academic expressions’ were actually seen as the justification for colonizing Africa with the delusion that Europe was spreading civilization. A choice sampling of the underpinnings of this colonial ‘academic expressions’ would show clearly their mentality and mindset.

For instance, Hume was of the conviction that the Africans, due to their blackness are precluded from the realm of reason and civilization. He speaks:

I am apt to suspect that the Negroes, and in general the other species of men to be naturally inferior to whites. There never was a civilized nation of any complexion than white.

Kant corroborated this when he thought that the fact that the Africans were black from head to foot was a clear proof that whatever they say was stupid . This implies that there are fundamental differences between the two races of man, differences that were more in mental capacities than colour. In Hegel’s opinion

The African, in his undifferentiated and concentrated unity, has not yet succeeded in making this distinction between himself as an individual and his essential universality, so that he knows nothing of an absolute being which is other and higher than his own self.

Africans from this point of view are neither part of the world history, nor part of humanity. People without culture and history, living in a state of innocence, unconscious of themselves, as in the natural and primitive state of Adam and Eve in the biblical paradise and will. This state could be likened to the state of nature described by the contractarians- Hobbes and Lock. In like manner, Marx and Engel articulated this same Eurocentric view as part of their philosophico-histotical position. For them the colonial Europeanization of the globe was a prerequisite for the possibility of the true human freedom, which to them, is communism.

These discourses on Africa underestimated and disparaged African culture and identity. It denied that ‘reason’ played any significant role in the development of society and culture in Africa, as it did in Europe. To the colonizers then, Africans had no abiding values and lacked generally, the intellectual and moral resources of the Europeans, whose mission in Africa was a ‘civilizing mission’. This civilizing mission, which was in form of colonization and Christianization of the Africans, can best be described as rape of Africa, which created a crisis of self-identity, injured her human dignity, sapped her self-confidence, and led her into perpetual soul-searching. The civilizing mission of Europeans was an active program by the Europeans to change the African’s supposed inferior ways of life to conform to European models in same important areas of human experience such as education, religion, economics, politics and social.

The very fact that the Africans were conquered was taken as a proof of the unhistoricity and lack of humanness of the colonized. The colonial racism succeeded in alienating many Africans from their own culture. There became a preference for European culture, values and mores. Some Africans began to see themselves inferior to the Whites, and our culture through Christian indoctrination, barbaric, inhuman and devilish. Through education and religion (Christianity), the European languages became official languages of most African countries, to the extent that our children feel ashamed to speak African native languages, and ashamed when unable to speak the so-called language of enlightenment. This implanted colonial and colonizer’s mentality, has made it difficult for this ugly situation to be reversed in any way. This is the mentality that makes a formerly colonized person, over-value foreign things coming from his erstwhile colonial master. ‘Things’ here is to be interpreted widely to include not only material objects, but also modes of thought and behaviour.

This cultural dislocation landed Africa in the problem of self-definition and identity, forced her to ask “who are my as a person?” “What was I as a person?” “How do I fashion out an enduring and a viable future?” Africans have found it difficult to find appropriate responses to these questions because Africa today is caught in a web, in between a past s/he could not recall and a present and future s/he could not envisage.

Despite all these, the dominance of the colonial mentality was not absolute; and this explains the reason why there is the problem of self-search and definition. Put differently, the obvious fact of this consciousness in Africa shows that indigenous modes of thought and action have not been totally eclipsed by colonialism. It shows that the colonialists did not take pain to penetrate and ‘educate’ the rural interior of African countries. As a result this people still retained a large part of their indigenous world outlook. These are the sages, according to Oruka, that have not been unduly influenced by Westernism.

Demonstrating African Rationality

There have been many dimensions to the question of the rationality of Africans and their culture. These dimensions focus on different aspects of the problem of rationality in Africa such as, the question of whether Africans are as human as other people of the world. The African’s philosophical responses and the concept of cultural relativism were attempts by prominent African scholars and nationalists to give answers to some of the questions raised in the problem of rationality, and also to restore self confidences, prestige and honour to Africa, bearing in mind that Africans through slavery and colonialism have suffered cultural discontinuity and dislocations and consequently made a people with no confidence in themselves.

The early Pan-Africansists like Edward Blyden, Dubois, Joseph Ki-zerbo, Africans Horton and postcolonial African leaders like Senghor, Nyerere, Nkrumah, Azikiwe, Awolowo etc, saw the solution to the crisis of culture and rationality in Africa in the discovery of authentic African ideas and thought systems uninfluenced by alien accretion. This gave birth to concepts like Ujaama, Negritude, African Socialism, etc. In the same vein, contemporary African philosophers like Kwasi Wiredu, Kwame Gyekye, Robin Horton, K.C. Anyanwu, Onyewuenyi and Segun Oladipo, to mention but a few, have upheld the concept of cultural relativism and demonstrated convincingly in their scholarly writings that indeed prior to Western contact with Africa, Africa had history and culture which was scientific and in fact with traces of the origin of modern medical science. A culture, which was rational, logical and humanistic, with values and respects, for humanity.

They further have held that philosophy did not spring up from vacuum and that philosophers from all ages were tremendously influenced by their society and culture, since most of what they postulated was already fore-grounded in their culture. And philosophy being a corollary of a culture presupposes that no philosophical theme or problem can completely be understood and handled without familiarity with the culture and language from which it originated. If there is any modicum of truth in the above; it would imply that philosophy arises from the culture of a people and therefore, no culture is bereft of philosophy.

Oruka tried to demonstrate this in his four-trends/orientations in African philosophy. He identifies the various sources and ways in which African philosophy was done: ethno philosophy, philosophy sagacity, the nationalist-ideological philosophy and the professional philosophy. Senghor on his part, postulated African epistemology; unique African mode of knowing; and Mbiti, had the inclination to show that the African’s have a different concept of time. These various responses were articulated to affirm and construct African rationality. That this various efforts represent truly the African spirit has been contested and controverted by many. While we commend these efforts, our worry comes in three folds; one these concepts especially as postulated by Senghor and Mbiti, are not particularisable, therefore nothing about them is peculiarly African. Two, Africa has not yet experienced real pragmatic applications of these ideas. Three, Africa could be said to be in a state currently worst than it was prior to colonial rule.

The Postcolonial African: a Demonstration of Rationality.

A change in the political Lordship, structures and processes expectedly gave Africa a breath of freedom and liberty, the Africa political leaders, who fought slavery and colonialism, took over governance in the continent. Most importantly, is the question of how Africans have demonstrated rationality after colonialism.

The postcolonial Africa is still besieged by problems arising from the accident, and design of history. The continent boasts of the highest numbers of failed states Burundi, Cote D’lvoire, Congo, DR, Zimbabwe, Sudan, Nigeria, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Angola. Oyeshile observes that we cannot controvert the fact that ethnic conflicts and wars have resulted in gross underdevelopment in the African continent. There have been wanton destruction of lives and property, human, material and natural resources, the problem of corruption, ethnicity, leadership, poverty, diseases, hunger, death, desertification, and diseases. These have all been wholly or partially attributed to the phenomenon of slavery, colonialism and military incursion into the African body polity. Those whop hold this position are not totally wrong. Hence Oguejiofor has recognized that

…The effect of slavery on African society was thus not limited to visible factors; even of greater consequence are the invisible political, psychological and social effect. The millions of people carted away meant a drastic reduction of the productive capacity, especially when those sought after were those at the bloom of their lives, wars aimed at gathering slaves, and other raids meant serious rupture of economic and social life.

Most Africans have reacted to Africa’s predicament, by simply tracing it to the door steps of external factor like-slavery and colonialism, and by extension militarism. While these can be regarded as major factors, it would be misleading to assume that the transatlantic slave trade described as the “most iniquitous transaction in human history” was solely perpetrated in the African continents by non-Africans. It has been observed that the African chiefs and rulers who through chains of middlemen penetrated the interiors of Africa on behalf of the European slave merchants to capture slaves and negotiate with the buyers, aided part of what we have attributed and considered the impacts of slavery.

It is also important to note that this trade lasted for over four hundred years, and one can not but wonder how this business was sustained for that long. Evidence abounds to show that the trade was indeed big business in its entire ramification for those who engaged in it -Africans and non-Africans alike. Oguejiofor corroborates this fact when he opines that the “Medieval kingdoms of West Africa derived great wealth through the export of slaves” One could imagine that the traders had excellent strategic business management skills and plans on sustainability.

What more can one say, these African traditional rulers might have had some functional management structures, and some would have functioned as MDs and CEOs. There were, one would suppose excellent succession plans to enhance business growth from generations to generations. One may want to raise the question, “how was Africa able to sustain the supply of goods consistently to the West?” A possible explanation that so many would not want to accept is that women were acquired as wives by the traditional rulers with the sole aim of the procreation or better still ‘production’ of slaves for the market? Though no evidence has proven this argument valid, it is a possible origin of polygamy in Africa.

The point that we can’t fail to make clear here is that whatever mentality that was predominant, and whatever justification or good reason(s) given for the Africans participation and partnership in this inhuman and hideous treatment of fellow Africans, some of who as Don Affonso, king of Congo observes were “sons of the land and sons of our noblemen, vassals and our relatives….” justifies, even if partly the view of Rudyard Kipling about Africans as “half devil and half child”. It would be rational to admit that we exhibited non-human mentality and rationality. There was no iota of sense of brotherhood and love exhibited by these African merchants. Where was that spirit of familism and communalism that we were told African’s were known? For whatever reason we failed, and I think we have justified our description by the Europeans as pre-logical.

With abolishment of slavery, African leaders naively embraced the legacies of the colonial administration. It was as Oguejiofor explains ‘a mere change of guards, with the indigenous politicians replacing the Europeans in the same positions, in the same system that they fought for so long to over throw’. Nothing fundamental changed, our brothers simply continued the colonial programs of the West. This era can simply be described a recolonization of Africans by Africans rather than independence. The implication of this is that we became our own enemies and downfall. Africans ploughed Africa further into uncertainty, unprductivity, and ‘undevelopment’. In fact it is seldom doubted that we were not ready for political independence. This has manifested evidently in the ways we have managed our own affairs.

With the ascendance of the military juntas into power in Africa who were “half educated, inexperienced and incompetent Corporals, Master Sergeants, Lieutenants and Captains … , Africa was further sent into the abyss of political instability and rudderless leadership” . Those dark ages of military rule were terrific, horrifying and pherocious, with such leaders as Idi Amin of Ugandu, Bokassa of Central Africa Republic, Mobutu of Zaire, Mengistu Haile Mariam of Ethopia, late Samuel Doe of Liberia, Sani Abacha of Nigeria and Michael Mikombero of Burundi. Again this era showed clearly, even now, our inability to demonstrate rationality and prove the West wrong, that we can paddle our boat unaided by them. It is obvious that our leaders, immediate past and present, inherited some devilish traits from the traditional African rulers who aided slave trade, especially ‘selfishness’. For more than half a century in Nigeria, we are still to graduate from democratic apprenticeship.

Conclusion: Redefining Rationality on the Basis of Societal Values and Pragmatism

It had been the position of the European invaders, anthropologists, ethnographers, philosophers, sociologists, policy makers and the likes that as far as the East is from the West, so is Africa far from philosophy, rationality and civilization. And that while the West in the home of civilization and philosophy, Africa is the home of wild trees, wild animals, wild people and wild culture. Surprisingly, the perception of Africa has not change. For instance, when in the televisions, beautiful houses, structures and hi-tech humans are used to depict the Western world, forests, jungles, elephants, lions and all sorts of wild animals are used to represent Africa.

The state, destiny and the value that Africa has had till today in the globalized village, has to a great extent been determined by the outcome of the debate and problem of rationality and most importantly, the Africans responses to it. The outcomes as we had highlighted include: the enslavement and colonization of Africans, which were justified on the premise that Africans were sub-humans, and indeed needed to be humanized and civilized through servitude and colonialism.

A way to conclude would be an attempt at the redefinition of rationality in the context of Africa. First is to affirm that the failure of African leaders to demonstrate rationality is not totally African. That is to say that if the leaders have been irrational, it would be fallacious to say that Africans are irrational. Interestingly, when one re-examines the ‘academic expression’ of the West about Africa, they are dosed with irrationalities and prelogical analyses and thoughts. For instance, there is obviously no logical connection between complexion and reason or civilization as Hume and Kant postulated. Levy Bruhl’s classification of Africans as periodical which was predicated on his interpretation of the Nuer saying was also a clear exhibition of ignorance and a privation of wisdom, knowledge and understanding. Binns observers that These perceptions were often based upon an inadequate understanding of African environments, societies, culture, and economic…

One distinguishing, essential feature of man is his rationality, and there lies his difference from other animals. There is no evidence to show that God created some people rational and others irrational. If the biblical records are anything to go by, God created man in his image and likeness. So to say that Africans are irrational would imply that God is irrational, or that God never created the Africans. Though these are possibilities, but they cannot be substantiated. Hence we consider the Senghorian theory of African mode of knowing, which seems to suggest that Africans do not rely on the faculty of reason in apprehending the external world as anti-African.

The purpose of a society is anchored on rationality and that explains why co-existence in a society will be hampered without a sense of rationality, rational attitude to life and essential society values, such as: tolerance, respect, freedom, equality, justice and value for human life. Actions that are anti-societal vision and good would definitely not be rational.

Therefore, the adoption of a social rationality has become inevitable for Africa in her quest for a total development. Of great interest here would be the criteria of rationality given by Steven Lukes known as practical rationality. This criterion emphasizes the ability of a practice to aid a people in attaining their goals. In other words, this theory also known as instrumental rationality means acting in a way that is maximally efficient and effective in achieving one’s goals. This criterion must be anchored on aforementioned basic societal African values, thereby making it pragmatic, and humanistic.

Africans, would want to ensure that their religious and cultural differences do not continue to form the bases for hatred, violence and insecurity; rather to be a strong force that would ensure that they fly high above the bumps of ethnicity and ethnic consciousness, overcome hunger, poverty, corruption, war, strive, disease, desertification, political and economic instability. Whatever political and societal values, policies, laws and practices that would ensure freedom, justice, equality, equity and total development of Africa would be very instrumental in achieving our desired goals in Africa. Anything short of this would widely be adjudged irrational in Africa by Africans.

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1 Few Fossils Of The Earliest Animals Exist Because They Dinosaurs and Their Appeal to Children on the Autism Spectrum

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Dinosaurs and Their Appeal to Children on the Autism Spectrum

Dinosaurs and the Autism Spectrum

Autism is an unpleasant lifelong condition that affects a surprising number of people. Research from the National Autistic Society suggests that around half a million people in the UK have some form of autism or have a related condition such as Asperger’s Syndrome. Autism is a condition that affects the way people relate to themselves and the world around them. Sufferers may be hypersensitive to sensory stimuli, they may have difficulty understanding their surroundings. Asperger syndrome is a form of autism. People with Asperger syndrome have difficulty communicating and interacting with others. Neither autism nor Asperger syndrome is associated with low intelligence, in fact, in our experience with children who have Asperger syndrome, the child in question is often shown to have a higher than average IQ. For example, one of the attractions of dinosaurs for children on the autism spectrum is the long names and all the complicated facts associated with these prehistoric monsters. Some children on the spectrum seem able to retain large amounts of information about their favorite dinosaurs and can recite a surprising amount of factual information about them.

Detecting children on the autism spectrum

These conditions cannot be detected just by looking at a person, there are no visual symptoms, but they are manifested in certain behaviors. If these behaviors can be identified in young children at an early age, then steps and processes can be put in place to help them and their families manage their condition effectively. Since these are called “hidden disabilities,” it can be very difficult to diagnose the condition. Fortunately, thanks to campaigning by a number of charities and other organisations, awareness of Autism, Asperger’s Syndrome and other related conditions has increased significantly over the past twenty years and many teachers and teaching assistants are now trained to be able to to identify Autism in school children in their class.

Children with Asperger syndrome may have less difficulty with their speech and usually do not have the associated learning difficulties associated with Autism, but they may have specific learning problems. These can include dyspraxia and dyslexia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Fortunately, society’s understanding of these conditions has improved greatly since my time at school. A friend was recently diagnosed as being on the autism spectrum with associated dyslexia, but as a school child her condition went unnoticed and she (and her parents) didn’t get the help and support she needed.

With the right help and encouragement, people on the autism spectrum and with Asperger syndrome can lead fully fulfilling and independent lives. The important thing from our perspective as teachers is to understand the condition and put in support at an early stage to help children and their parents/carers/family members manage.

Autism is a spectrum

When teaching a classroom, it can be difficult to identify behaviors in a young child that may indicate that this child has Autism or a similar condition. The problem is that there are “grades” of Autism. I always prefer the term autism spectrum condition to the alternative title Autism Spectrum syndrome, but in my experience both are used. I imagine the condition of Autism as a tall bar with a person with the condition fitting somewhere along this bar as each individual can be affected differently. It is true to say that while all people with Autism will share certain behaviors and difficulties in understanding the world and their environment, some people will be able to live independent lives, while others, who may have learning difficulties and disabilities, will require specialist support. throughout their lives.

Where do the dinosaurs fit in?

There are several types of behaviors associated with children on the autism spectrum. Not all people will exhibit the same behaviors, Autism affects individuals in different ways. One of the mantras I use when teaching a classroom with a child or children on the autism spectrum is to remember to “celebrate their uniqueness and rejoice in the way they are able to see the world differently than I do.” However, there are common behaviors and the subject of dinosaurs seems to lend itself to them.

For example, some children may be naturalists and become extremely knowledgeable about a subject they enjoy. Studying dinosaurs seems to tick a lot of the boxes for them and they immerse themselves almost completely in their subject. Children on the autism spectrum may be able to recall information better than their peers, with so many facts and figures surrounding the study of dinosaurs that they seem naturally drawn to the subject. For example, being able to cite facts and statistics about dinosaurs – which was the biggest, toughest, heaviest, fastest, longest? Vertebrate paleontology and Dinosauria in particular seem to be a rich source of information that is often recited over and over again with parents/guardians bombarded with questions and requests for more data.

In addition, youngsters on the autism spectrum may often be reluctant to join in play with other children, preferring to play alone, immersing themselves in their favorite theme area and playing with dinosaur models and other replicas. . Often they may repeat the game over and over or insist on doing the same activity over and over at the same time every day. The availability of videos and DVDs on dinosaurs can help with this. Children on the autism spectrum may enjoy watching repeated showings of the same DVD.

Dinosaur Day Out

Fortunately, there are a number of museums that have exhibits of dinosaur fossils and other items that can be visited. However, for a family taking out a child on the autism spectrum during the day can be a frightening prospect and a difficult episode can result in parents/carers losing all confidence.

There are some hopefully useful tips and advice we can pass on to help parents/carers manage the day ensuring it is a rewarding activity for all concerned.

1). Don’t forget empathy

Some children on the autism spectrum can be hypersensitive to loud noises and bright lights. If you intend to visit a dinosaur attraction, we recommend that you contact the providers before you go to understand any elements that may be of concern to your child.

2). Contact the provider before visiting

Contacting the museum before the day gives you the chance to find out about any special arrangements that may be in place to help you get the most out of your day. You can also get specialist advice and arrange support on the day if needed.

3). Get the Guide before you go

By picking up a guidebook or leaflet before you visit you and your child can plan their day. This can help prepare the child for the experience to some extent and enable you and your family to be able to get the most out of the visit.

Obsessed with dinosaurs

Not all children on the autism spectrum will have obsessions. Those who do may not be obsessed with dinosaurs and prehistoric animals. For example, we have come across a number of young children who become completely immersed in subjects as diverse as cars and Thomas the Tank Engine, but a number of children develop a fascination for dinosaurs. This in itself is not a bad thing, as with the establishment of the creative curriculum in most parts of the UK, schools often cover this subject area within their schemes of work. Learning about dinosaurs can help develop confidence, after all, many children will share this common interest and love of all things dinosaur. There are a number of resources that can help, everything from your local library, regional museum and of course the internet. For parents/carers too, learning about dinosaurs can be a rewarding experience, especially if it’s an area that allows them to celebrate the way their special child sees the world.

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1 Distinguish Between The Properties Of Animal And Vegetable Fats The Science of Healthy Eating

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The Science of Healthy Eating

There is so much confusing and contradictory information out there about healthy eating. I will try to summarize what I have learned as a bodybuilder who wants to stay healthy as I age. The choices of foods that we can now can have a significant effect not only on our body shape and quality of life, but also mortality and on how well we age.

The components of whole food.

Foods are made up of many different components-some are “micro” or smaller quantity nutrients, like vitamins, and some are “macro” or larger quantity nutrients. The three macro groups that compose the majority of our diets are carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. These three units are the basic materials that fuel our activities and metabolism and maintain body composition. Selecting the best sources and amounts of these three macronutrients may help to minimize metabolic disorders (such as high cholesterol and blood sugar) and prevent loss of lean body mass and accumulation of body fat.)

The best carbohydrates.

Carbohydrates provide our body’s main source of quick energy. After carbohydrates are digested and after some processing by the liver, they are released into the bloodstream as a sugar called glucose to be delivered to the cells.

Throughout the majority of the last million years of our evolution, the human diet consisted of animal carcasses, some seeds, nuts, and fibrous vegetable and fruit carbohydrate sources that are generally nutrient-rich with lots of water, but are not calorie-dense like processed foods of today. The majority of these carbohydrate sources are vegetables, leaves, roots, and fruits (all rich in fiber). Because vegetable fiber tends to slow down digestion, a majority of the carbohydrates in these foods are absorbed relatively slowly, inducing less blood sugar (glucose) and insulin spikes than processed sweets that contain no fiber. Some people call these “slow carbs.”

It was only after the advent of agriculture that human beings were introduced to higher intakes of grains as carbohydrate sources. Higher intakes of grains deliver lots of calories. Additionally, some grains deliver their sugar energy relatively quickly, especially if the grain is milled (which removes the fiber that slows down sugar absorption), as are the grains in breads and pasta. Unless you are very active and exercise enough to metabolize nutrients more rapidly, this quick glucose release into the bloodstream can create a dysfunctional hormonal environment that can ultimately promote obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. This hormonal shift also has a profound effect on lean body mass and fat metabolism, and possibly immune function. The key hormone involved in this problem is called insulin, produced by an organ called the pancreas.

Insulin and insulin resistance.

The hormone insulin is produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar and store it in muscles for later use as glycogen. Insulin’s main job in the body is to promote the delivery of sugar energy as glucose to cells. When a small amount of glucose is delivered into the bloodstream, a small amount of insulin is produced by the pancreas to accompany it. When there is a large amount of glucose, the pancreas works to produce a large amount of insulin to facilitate its delivery so that cells can take in as much glucose as possible. Extra glucose that cannot be taken in by the cells circulates in the bloodstream and can be toxic to brain cells, so under normal circumstances, most of it is soon converted into triglycerides (fat) in the liver to be stored for later use. But we have to be careful with high blood levels of triglycerides, since they are what feed fat cells.

The correct amount of carbohydrate sources will provide enough sugar to give a healthy amount of glucose to the cells, but not too much at once. Thus, levels of glucose and insulin in the bloodstream are not unusually elevated for any long period of time. The pancreas works, but it is not overworked trying to keep up with an unusual demand for insulin. However, in the U.S., much of the diet consists not only of large amounts of high-calorie carbohydrate sources, but also of carbohydrates from sweets and sodas, which are very concentrated sources of sugar. The net effect that intake of these calorie-dense carbohydrate foods creates is a bloodstream that is occasionally flooded with large amounts of glucose, a pancreas that is overworked, and large amounts of insulin and triglycerides circulating in the bloodstream. Note that excess insulin causes increased production of cholesterol.

Over time, these occasional glucose, triglyceride, and insulin floods can cause a decrease in the sensitivity of the cells’ response to insulin, which reduces the cells’ ability to take in glucose. Insensitivity to insulin is called insulin resistance, and it is a serious consideration in metabolic problems. Some HIV medications can worsen insulin resistance, so we need to be aware of nutritional considerations that can help. Ways to decrease insulin resistance are to exercise, follow a proper diet, and taking medications that improve insulin response. For instance, several studies have found that people consuming an overall high-quality diet, rich in fiber and adequate in energy and protein, were less likely to gain fat. This is why it is best to select the majority of your carbohydrate intake from fiber-rich, slow-releasing carbohydrate sources that do not contain an excessive amount of calories. And these good carbs should be accompanied by good sources of protein and fats.

Combining carbohydrates with protein, fiber, and fat.

Protein, fiber, or fat will slow the absorption into the blood of glucose from carbohydrates, which helps to reduce the rise in blood sugar and insulin spikes. So, mixing carbohydrates with protein, fiber, and good fats is one way to reduce their problematic effect on blood sugar and insulin. Ensure that every meal and snack you consume has a mix of these three macronutrients. But what are the best fats, protein, and high-fiber carbohydrates sources out there?

Fats and oils.

There are a number of different kinds of fats. There is motor oil, there is butter, and there are essential fatty acids. The most important oil to keep a Honda running right is not the kind with essential fatty acids (EFAs), but if you want to help your body stay healthy and your immune system operating at its best, you had better consider getting these EFAs on a daily basis. They are called “essential” because your body cannot manufacture them, and must obtain them from an outside source, like food or supplements. These oils are necessary for every critical function in your metabolism, including building lean body mass and fighting infections.

The main point is that since we need EFAs and other fats for health, we should be getting them in our diets from fresh, high-quality sources. A proper diet reduces the amount of starchy carbohydrates while maintaining a certain amount of healthy fats so that there is a different macronutrient balance than the old high-carbohydrate, high-protein, low-fat diets contained. This means striving to get fatty acids from several sources, the least of which are the saturated fats in butter or animal fat. Understand that saturated fats are not the demons we have been led to believe. When we realize that we evolved getting a certain amount of saturated fat from foods in the wild, it is only logical that they would have a place in a healthy diet. One recent study showed that dietary saturated fat and mono-unsaturated fat were associated with healthy testosterone production in humans, while EFAs had no effect. So it appears that we need a little saturated fat for optimal hormonal health. However, most people get far too much saturated fat, which promotes insulin resistance and metabolic problems, and not enough EFAs, which are needed for healthy cells and immune function.

The other important kind of fat that we should consciously include in our daily diet is mono-unsaturated fat, which we get from foods like olive oil. Recent data have shown that mono-unsaturated fats decrease the risk of certain cancers, and have an anti-inflammatory effect.

Fatty acid recommendations.

EFAs include the omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Most people get an imbalance of these two by consuming too small an amount of omega-3 fats, which have anti-inflammatory properties, and relatively too large an amount of omega-6 fats, which tend to promote inflammation when out of balance. To get more omega-3s, eat more fish, including salmon, tuna, sardines, anchovies, mackerel, rainbow trout, and herring. Omega-6s are contained in common vegetable oils, like sunflower, safflower, and corn oils. Try to reduce your intake of these.

Oils and cooking.

Olive oil is one of the best oils to cook with. You can also cook with high-oleic sunflower oil, avocado, canola, macadamia, or any oil that is high in mono-unsaturated fatty acids.

Avoid cooking with oils made from corn and sesame. These oils contain more omega-6 fats, and less mono-unsaturated fats, so they have a higher potential for spoiling and turning to trans-fats, which are bad for the immune system. Try to avoid any intake of these oils when they are not absolutely fresh.

Also, choose oils that are minimally processed. Most of the clear oils in supermarkets are stripped of some of their natural components to make them more suitable for sitting on store shelves for long periods of time without spoiling. Do not use these stripped oils. When you do cook, do not overheat the oil so that it smokes, which causes the formation of carcinogens and destroys the beneficial fatty acids.

Avoid margarine, hydrogenated fats, or processed oils.

Do your best to avoid processed fats or oils, as they have negative effects on cellular health, overall metabolism, and your immune system. Look out for the words hydrogenated and partially-hydrogenated. These kinds of manipulated fats probably do increase the risk of cancer and heart disease. They also weaken healthy cellular immune metabolism. Lastly, they are also likely to promote high lipid levels and insulin resistance.

Protein, food for the immune system.

Dairy protein fractions, such as caseine (contained in milk curd) and whey, are at the top of the list of proteins that optimally feed lean body mass growth. In dairy products, the amino acid balances, insulin-raising potential, and overall growth factor content add up to one thing: milk proteins were created to make mammals grow bigger. While there is a lot of hoopla related to which dairy protein fractions are best, there is more misinformation than reality in this area. Those with lactose intolerance should be careful in their selection of milk-based products. Aged cheeses and yogurt may be more tolerable for those who cannot digest lactose.

Egg protein.

Next on the list are egg proteins. The important thing to remember is that whole egg is probably somewhat better than egg white for lean body mass growth and overall health effect, because the yolk is a rich nutrient source, and its protein content complements the protein in the egg white. Together they are a better source of protein.

Meat protein.

While real food like meat often seems to take a back seat to protein powders because of a mindset created by slick advertising, professional athletes know the value of real food related to lean body mass growth. If you do not make real food and meat fundamentals in your diet, you will not grow lean body mass tissue as well. Fish, chicken, turkey, and beef are vitally important foods, not only because of their protein content, but because they contain numerous other nutritional components that are important for a healthy metabolism. The message is: eat real food, then supplement food with protein powder drinks if you need them.

Lean red meat is a superior source for lean body mass growth and blood-building nutrients. These include creatine, carnitine, phenylalanine, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), and heme- (blood) iron, the most absorbable form of iron. And meat, in general, is less likely to cause allergic reactions than eggs or dairy proteins, like casein and whey. The only caution about red meat is that the high amount of saturated fat most commercial red meat contains could promote metabolic problems. So be moderate about including it in your diet and choose leaner meats if you do.

Important details on meat: cooking kills bacteria in meats. Stewed meat is better for digestion (chicken soup, beef stew). Roasting is okay. Try not to fry or barbecue with charcoal. Charred foods are associated with increased risk of gastrointestinal system cancers. Any cooking of meat or vegetable protein that causes the formation of a hard outer skin renders the protein that becomes the skin to be much less digestible because it cross-links the protein.

Vegetarian diets

It is very difficult to gain lean muscle weight on a vegetarian diet. In fact, it is almost impossible for most people, especially when they are fighting infections that burn lean body.

If you do choose a vegetarian diet, your best protein sources are beans, seeds and nuts. Digestion of nuts and seeds will be improved by soaking them overnight to reduce the enzymes they contain that inhibit digestion of proteins. If you can eat them without digestive problems, many nuts and seeds are ideal foods because they contain protein, healthy fat, and complex carbohydrates in a very good balance for overall health. They also make a great snack between meals. However, the amino acid balances in these proteins do not appear to be optimum for lean body mass growth for humans.

Calcium and vitamin D-two important micronutrients

We know that calcium and vitamin D help to strengthen bone. Many of us chose to take calcium plus vitamin D supplements, but there are also foods that are rich in these nutrients. Calcium-rich foods include milk, cheese, spinach, fortified orange juice (be careful with the sugar, though!), fish, eggs, and beans. Vitamin D-rich foods include milk, most fish, and eggs. However, most of us do not consume the 1000 mg and 2000 IU needed per day for calcium and vitamin D, respectively, and need to take over-the-counter supplements.

Miscellaneous nutrition tips

– For your food, shop mostly in the outer part of the grocery store where the fresh produce, meats, and milk products/eggs are. Avoid overly processed canned or packaged foods, except for frozen vegetables. Read the labels and avoid products with many preservatives and additives. Trans-fats and hydrogenated oils, high fructose corn syrup, and high sugar should be on your radar when reading labels. Watch this funny video for more details on healthy eating.

– Try to eat several smaller balanced (protein + good carbs + good fats) meals or snacks instead of two to three large ones. Smaller meals/snacks are more easily digestible, keep blood sugar and insulin more constant through the day, and keep you from binge eating late at night.

– Eat more almonds, walnuts, pecans and pistachios (good cholesterol-lowering fats). Twice a day, snack on such nuts to get your good fats and fiber. If you wish, mix them with some dried fruit. Research has shown that people who eat nuts tend to have lower LDL cholesterol.

– Avoid junk and fast food. The best way to do this is to have enough food at home and to bring lunch to work. Cook a lot of food on weekends and freeze meals in small containers you can heat up later.

– Do not sabotage yourself by bringing sweets and junk into your home. Watch your cravings at night, when most people find it the most difficult to avoid overdrinking alcohol or eating ice cream, cookies, and comfort foods.

– Eat a large breakfast, a moderate lunch, and a small dinner. Skipping breakfast makes you more prone to overcompensate by eating more calories late in the day. Your body has spent several hours without food and is starved for nutrients in the morning. Do not feed it sugar and white flour products at this important time. Eggs, oatmeal (the type that has no added sugar, and you can add whey protein powder to it!), Greek-style yogurt with nuts and fiber supplements, low-fat cottage cheese with fruit, almond butter on multigrain (high-fiber) bread, and fruit are all good choices for breakfast.

– For lunch have some soup and a glass of water first and wait 10 minutes to trick your body into feeling full faster. Grilled chicken with vegetables, tuna salad over greens and nuts, a Greek salad with sliced steak, and any Mediterranean food choices are good.

– For dinner, fill yourself with stir-fried (use olive oil!) vegetables and lean meats. Two hours before bed, you can have half an almond butter sandwich or yogurt with fruit. You will not be hungry and desperate with this diet!

– Eat fruits and vegetables of all colors. Each has a different antioxidant profile. The produce section of the market is basically a fresh vitamin department and a medicine chest. Some foods like garlic, onions, and ginger have genuine therapeutic effects. Eating the widest variety of fresh produce on a daily basis assures you of getting all the ingredients that nature provides that can help keep your body strong enough to handle bacteria and viruses so that you stay healthy.

– Avoid sodas, sweet drinks, and fruit juices (fruit sounds healthy, but juice contains too much sugar and no fiber to slow down its absorption into the blood). Consuming sugar daily can affect your metabolism, create insulin resistance, make you fat, and have all kinds of negative health consequences. The suggested pecking order of carbohydrate food sources that support your health without increasing insulin resistance follows. Best are vegetables in their many forms. Next are beans and peas. These deliver more calories than vegetables, but the carbohydrates release much more slowly than grains. Next are whole grains, which are calorie-dense but contain carbohydrates that, in general, release somewhat slowly. At the bottom, and the most likely to promote body fat problems, are carbohydrates from milled grains, like wheat and corn. Whole grains are marginally better than processed grains, but when they are milled into flour the difference is not that great. The very worst carbohydrate sources are sweets, like candies, which can deliver as many as 2,000 calories per pound. Try to eat from the first group of slow-release carbohydrate sources most of the time, and if you are relatively healthy, you can have small amounts of milled wheat products or sweets once in awhile.

– Drink lots of water. Six to eight glasses a day is a good goal. If you get thirsty, you are already dehydrated!

– Eat a high-protein, complex carbohydrate-rich meal after workouts. Examples: chicken salad with nuts, cottage cheese or yogurt and nuts/fruit, celery sticks and hummus (chickpea butter), etc.

– Manage your intake of caffeine (it reduces appetite but can increase anxiety). Do not have any caffeine after 4 p.m., since it can impair your sleep.

– Minimize hidden sugars like high fructose corn syrup. Read the labels of food you buy. Diet sodas tend to make your brain crave sweets in general, so they are not good substitutes for sugary drinks. Water, water, water!

– If you do not consume at least 20 grams of fiber a day, add to your intake supplements like Citrucell or Benefiber, purchased in any grocery store. Fiber improves insulin sensitivity, makes you feel full longer, keeps your gut healthy (friendly gut bacteria that produce vitamins love fiber), keeps you regular and reduces diarrhea, and can lower the chances of getting colon cancer.

– Eating healthy is eating smart, and it does not mean that you should starve yourself. Hopefully, this information has shed some light on healthy food sources and how they can affect health and the bodySo, take charge of your health and take care of your body. It is the only one you have.

Healthy Eating Shopping List

1. Produce

– Spinach and other green leafy vegetables

– Broccoli and cabbage

– Green beans

– Avocados

– Raspberries and all berries. You can buy frozen ones and add to whey protein shakes

– Whole fruits (remember no juices).

– Sweet potatoes, carrots

– Hummus

– Beans and other legumes (you can buy canned or frozen ones)

2. Nuts, Grains, Oil

– Mix of almonds and other nuts

– Peanut, almond, and cashew butters without hydrogenated oil (the healthy nut butters show oil and butter separated since the lack of hydrogenated oils prevents emulsification)

– Pumpkin and sunflower seeds

– Wild rice (the darker the rice, the better)

– Whole grain breads and pasta

– High fiber crackers

– Oatmeal (not the little packets; those are loaded with sugars)

– Olive oil

3. Dairy

– Low fat milk, cheese

– Yogurt (Greek style, no sugar added)

– Eggs (free range or Omega 3 enriched if possible)

4. Meat

– Lean meats

– Salmon, sardines and tuna

– Occasional glass of red wine per day (optional)

5. Supplements

– Whey protein (I like the Isopure brand since it does not give me gut problems and it is very light)

– Vitamin D

– A multivitamin (Super Nutrition’s Super Blend)

– Fish Oils

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1 Discuss The Advantages Of Group Living For An Animal Psychic Skills – Benefits and Disadvantages!

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Psychic Skills – Benefits and Disadvantages!

Psychic abilities should come with a warning sign that reads “possible side effects”! Having or developing such skills is not to be taken lightly, as once you have them, there is no going back and there is a responsibility to use them wisely and for the highest good.

While many people are fascinated with anything psychic, others fear it as the work of the devil and still others see it as a hoax. Regardless of your perspective, having psychic abilities can be both beneficial and disadvantageous.

Benefits include:

1. to be able to receive helpful and healing messages to people who may be distressed to help them

2. life becomes richer and more joyful as you can receive guidance to help yourself with your problems and spiritual development in life

3. If you are a healer, you can know what your clients’ problem is and help them with it

4. You can be warned about something before it happens, which can give you time to prepare for it or, time to take action to avoid it, if it is possible to do so.

5. Depending on the type of psychic abilities you have, you can read other people’s motives and give others clear instructions

6. You can help people find their direction in life and alleviate their suffering

7. You become your own authority instead of relying on other people for answers

However, life is not all fun and games. There is a downside that you should be prepared for. Disadvantages include:

1. People may think they can call you or ask you for advice no matter where you are without paying for it

2. If you don’t set boundaries around when to use your psychic abilities and when to turn them off, you may find yourself unable to sleep with people from day to night.

3. Sometimes, if you are a feeling person, you can feel very emotionally unbalanced. You may feel sad or sad or depressed for no apparent reason, and it can be difficult to manage if you’re in a relationship. Later you will receive confirmation of why you felt this way; a friend’s father died or something traumatic happened to a close relative and you were taking it.

4. You may often be misunderstood or not taken seriously by family members who do not have or do not believe in psychic abilities. This can be hard to come by and you can feel very lonely unless you join a group of like-minded people where you can talk about your gift.

5. You’ll be privy to all kinds of personal information, some of which you probably wish you didn’t know about people! This can put you in a very difficult position.

6. You can become very unlikable because some people do not like to face the truth and will blame you for it if they are not willing to take responsibility for their problems and their lives.

7. The hardest part is knowing what you know and having to step back and let other people learn whatever they need because they chose to ignore what you told them!

If you have psychic abilities, you can’t get them back when you’ve had enough, and you can only ignore them for a certain amount of time. They can enrich your life if you use them wisely to bring joy and clarity to other people.

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1 According To Victor How Is Man Different From Animals Adversaries For Our Good! Say What?

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Adversaries For Our Good! Say What?

If you’re married like me, I’m sure you’ve had your share of extended family spats. Who doesn’t right? What’s that expression, “You can pick your friends, but you can’t pick your families… nose?” Or something like that.

In any event, why does it seem, that families, who should be the most supportive and loving, usually cause the most pain and suffering. Well, this is the reason for this essay.

You see, Christ did say, he came to cause division. Dividing us from the CARNAL MAN people so where two once stood, now there is only ONE IN CHRIST! (too much? read on.)

Luke 12:53

The father shall be divided against the son, and the son against the father; the mother against the daughter, and the daughter against the mother; the mother in law against her daughter in law, and the daughter in law against her mother in law.

Now granted, I see this above scripture allegorically and spiritually. But, whatever is within is also without, people. God uses our lives, our victories, defeats, our joys, and our sufferings, to teach us. God knows, he is doing such with me.

It seems persecution and tribulation has been a better teacher than the warm embrace of love and fluffy pillows.

Acts 14:22

Confirming the souls of the disciples, and exhorting them to continue in the faith, and that we must through much tribulation enter into the kingdom of God.

As much as it stinks as a pair of dirty underwear, making mistakes and paying the price really is a better teacher than anything else I have experienced in the world.

Forgiveness is one of the most important lessons we must learn. To do this, we must feel the sting of betrayal. This is so we will learn to find peace within and not outside of ourselves. If we want everyone to like us, then we are looking for Life in temporary things that just can’t cut the mustard when the rubber meets the road. Because Man will fail you every step of the way. So to avoid us putting our faith in THE CREATION, as many idolators love to do, God makes sure you don’t find that acceptance and peace you so desperately crave.

Here is the reason, the TEMPORAL WORLD is the problem, the world WITHIN (the kingdom of God) is the solution. When a turtle is threatened it retreats into its shell, when we are attacked we retreat within as well. GOD HELP US, we pray.

You will find, if you change your thoughts, your world will Change.

Today, everyone, including myself, is worried about what everyone else thinks or says, this is why we SUFFER. Which is why I am here for yet another eye-opening rant about the tests God has placed in my life.

2 Corinthians 4:18

While we look not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen: for the things which are seen are temporal; but the things which are not seen are eternal.

We need to stop looking for approval and acceptance anything and anyone outside of us, and start looking for God and His peace within (Note to Jacob: DO THIS!)

Matthew 6:33

But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you.

The people who have been causing my wife and I a good deal of pain of late, are like the Pharisees who were so concerned with the outside appearance of things. On the outside they seemed to have it all right?


They are hurting, they are sad, they are alone and feel empty. I know this by their actions toward us. They believe the more they have, purchase, or own, the more they build, conquer, rule over others or put down, that they will feel better about themselves and find peace. They believe the more they tear down those who are happy, they will feel better about themselves. So they shine up the outside of their lives, while the inside is a cold and bitter, broken, place. These poor people.

Matthew 23:25

You make clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and excess.

You’ll also find those who put their faith in external things, hate those who put their faith on the internal things, like Me. People hate what they don’t understand. A man who believes in God is hated by the one who wishes he had such passion and faith, but is bankrupt and empty. The fool says in his heart there is no God, and then his action is to mock and find others to do the same. But no matter how many broken, hurting, angry people surround them, they will still be sadly alone. And when it all comes to the end, they will have nothing but a life of mockery and hate to look at, as opposed to what they could have built instead.

If they learned that peace is only found within, and not without, then they would have what WE have, (which they so desperately want and yet hate) And they would no longer feel the need to attack us and tear us down.

Matthew 23:26

Thou blind Pharisee, cleanse first that which is within the cup and platter, that the outside of them may be clean also.

So something needs to be done so these people can come to this understanding. And there is no better teacher than TRIBULATION. Through much suffering we enter the kingdom. As a woman travails in birth with her child, the pangs of birth DRIVE HER TO DELIVERY. This happens for us all.

For the moment, My wife and I are enduring the attacks of these sad people, but I assure you this will be for our good. And when we learn, what it is we are meant to learn, then they will have to reap what they have sown as well.

If God didn’t allow us to suffer we would be addicted to Form forever. This is why there is a FIERY SWORD at the garden’s entrance KEEPING US FROM ENTERING eternal life without DYING TO OUR CARNAL (EGO) the Dead Man called ADAM.

This is why Christ had to come and divide, father against son, etc… You see, God will tear you and your earthly attachments apart until you learn these great and nobles truths of the Kingdom.

What better way to learn to forgive a betrayer, or the meat-head enemies that come along, and step on our feelings, then to have one’s own enemy COME from ones own home. (Which I know is also symbolic of our mind) – For truly, the only enemy there is, are the lies and negative thoughts we have about others and ourselves. It is seeing duality and division, instead of unity and knowing peace.

So, there will be enemies in this world for us to overcome. Without us and Within Us. Forgive me for sharing this tid bit of information, but GOD is the One responsible for sending these enemies our way. He does this to humble us and prepare us for what is to come. Sometimes we deserve it. Sometimes we need it. Sometimes we should just ZIP OUR LIP and learn from it. We need to stop worrying and allowing these painful situations to race over again and again in our mind. Because these situations, I promise you, are there for our spiritual advancement.

1 Corinthians 5:5

To deliver such a one unto Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus.

Most Religious leaders leave out this precious scripture, where we see the disciples saying, “Hey put this chooch into the DEVIL’S HANDS, he’ll destroy the fleshy sin that is keeping him from the truth and his SPIRIT will be saved because of it.”

WHAT JACOB? The Devil saves? – Well, if not for a great purpose, God would not create the destroyer to destroy, would he?

Our suffering helps set us free. When we see this we are free indeed.

When we realize our enemies are “unknowingly” doing the will of God to better our spiritual growth, and helping further us into the Kingdom of Peace, we will rejoice!

Amos 3: 6

Shall there be evil in a city, and the LORD hath not done it?

God is preparing us, as a trainer prepares an athlete before a big meet. The weights need to be added on to strengthen us for the fight to come. The stronger we get spiritually, the more resistance we will meet spiritually. (In the natural as well)

God did the same with Joseph, Jacob, David, Moses, Jesus, Paul, the list goes on and on. He even turned a Donkey against Baalam, a donkey was his adversary, now that was Donkey show that I would pay to have seen… Not like the ones some of my old college buddies have paid for in the past. I brought that up to show you, there is no depth that man will not go, when the Truth of Christ is NOT ruling. Man is a beast while the Child of God is entombed within.

But the ELDER (CARNAL) will serve the Younger (Christ In you)

But even the Stubborn “Ass” that stood in the dumb prophet Balaam’s way, was motivated by God’s angel.

God is God people, He is behind it all. The sooner we learn from our sufferings, the sooner we can move forward and stop writing long blog’s about how mean these (adversaries for our good) are… Oh wait a minute, that’s me I’m talking about! DOH!

If resistance is the only way we become physically strong. Is it SO hard to believe spiritual resistance is the only way we become spiritually strong?

Yes, while we are under attack we do feel weak and helpless and it sucks big green eggs… (Not that I have ever seen a green egg, but if you mix that with some green ham I bet that would rock! Or at least I’ve been told by Sam I Am.)

Suffering is good thing. Just look at the Butterfly after its long fight in the death of its cocoon. I think he would say it was worth the fight when flying high above the pain of his past.

In our weakness we FINALLY allow God to be strong. And when God is our Strength we finally know Joy. “The Joy of the Lord is our Strength!”

It is when we scream, “I can’t do it anymore! I give up! I stink like an old mans foot!” It is when we are the most broken that we are given the opportunity to be made whole again.

We must come to the conclusion that our CARNAL NATURE (ADAM/EGO) is vain and can profit us no longer. If we act as an animal acts we will inherit flees. If we act as the Child of God we inherit His Kingdom!

We must say, “I hate this world, I hate who I am, I hate my life (ego)!” You see people, where you may believe you are losing the fight, I see God frustrating you to GIVE UP THE FIGHT… And when you do, VICTORY I MINE, SAYETH THE LORD!

John 12:25

He that loveth his life shall lose it; and he that hateth his life in this world shall keep it unto life eternal.

But to get you to this point, sometimes, we need a Pharaoh or two to enslave us, torment us, and test us until we are READY AND WILLING to stand up and REST so we can allow God to set us free.

We all know that carnal man is always concocting devious plans, scenarios, and words to say, things to do, to show those bullies, those that hurt us just what we think of them!… But that is not the voice of truth. That STRANGE WOMAN’S VOICE in our head (See my article; Strange woman), It is the voice of fear, hurt, worry and anger, it is the voice of lies.

If I were to pick up a rock or stone and throw it at one who has stoned me first, guess what, I am no better than them and I better duck because another stone will be coming at me soon after.

This is what we wrestle against, not flesh and Blood, not mean people, but the NEGATIVE THOUGHTS (demons/principalities/powers within) that plague our mind, trying to get us to roll up our sleeves and GET READY TO RUMBLE!

Some would think even those who have so much monetarily, would be at peace and show more compassion and charity. But they don’t.

It should sicken us when people who should love us, attach us, but they know no better. Yet, whatever they are going through, and have yet to go through, will stem from their terrible treatment I assure you.

God is not mocked, whatever a man sows he shall also reap

Many don’t believe this. Because many dont truly believe in God. But these words are a herald of sorts for them all.

“For soon, it will all come crumbling down around them, and in that day they will know they have done evil in the land.”

Sometimes family members or loved ones can take their abuses too far, as was the case with my wife and I. It is harassment and it is slander and liable, and all of this, yes. But, God repays not me. And like I said, there is still much I and my wife ARE LEARNING from these wackadoos!

So, instead of retaliating or sending an email to expose all the crazy skeletons in their closets. I CHOSE TO THANK GOD FOR THEM! I pray things will get better for them, I want restoration for them, not the division I see… Because let’s be real, their house is already DIVIDED and a house divided against itself cannot stand. News flash OURS IS STANDING STRONGER THAN BEFORE! So instead of bringing down the wrath of Jacob with the ugly truth about our adversaries for our goods lives, I prayed for them instead. Danielle and I will not speak one word of their indiscretions, they are so very pained already, I would not want to cause any suffering in their life, even if they have done so toward us.

You see, sometimes your happiness will drive people bonkers. They don’t have what you have so they want to hurt it, tear it apart. How sad is that? The problem is they want what you have and can’t find it (Peace, Love, Life). A family, a Wife who loves me and is attracted to me, and children who adore us and we adore. It is a simple and wonderful life. But it is not without its trials.

Deep down, our adversaries want to have a home filled with love, Faith in something, they want their life to have meaning. They want what they cannot find, because the only way to find it, is to see how very wrong they are.

In actuality these attacks have brought my wife and I closer together, I never thought that was possible. If only more marriages that were struggling could realize, it is not the good times that proves a man and woman’s love, it is getting through the bad times, that proves their love. It is standing together, forgiving each other, looking to the moment and not behind, taking each others hand and saying, “I love you baby, and you are so darn HOT!” – Well that’s what I say at least.

Our present suffering will end (I PROMISE), but this suffering is the glue that brings families closer together. Two separate objects don’t want to become one naturally. It takes the brute force of the hammer, the piercing of the nail, the torment and splintering of the wood, to have two pieces of wood joined into one. Where two come together, there is always a torment of sorts that changes the two into one.

Here is what our “adversaries for our spiritual growth” don’t understand.

Even those in our own families, extended families, neighbors, whoever it is who hurts us, tear us down, and attacks us. When these individuals are doing everything in their power to break up a marriage. They are also, unknowingly, trying to break up a large family. Tearing each of us from our kids. They don’t realize how devastating this would be to our three children, if we were to let there sad behavior effect our marriage. Then My son and daughter would lose their step mother, who they love so very much. My new son would lose me, who he is crazy about and I love so very much. Worse still, my son and daughter and my wife sons would be forever heart-broken because their brothers and sister for years, were no more. And I would never know true love again!

All because these empty, ugly, hurting, broken sad people tried to dictate and tear apart the very thing they wished they had in their life.

Then comes along a man name Jacob, and a light was lit in that beautiful angels heart. What these (adversaries for our good) don’t realize, is I am not like those that have come before. They know there is something different about me, because I treat them with respect even after they treat me with vulgarity and hate. (That does not compute with the Carnal man)

1 Corinthians 2:14

But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned.

They don’t get me at all. There is just something about me, they can’t stand. I call it CHRIST! But here is where it gets real sticky for them. You see, when My wife and I learn from their torments what it is we are meant to learn, then they will reap what they have sown. Here is a truth, for all of us, those that bless us and our families they will be blessed. But for those who curse us and our families they will be cursed.

Genesis 12:3

I will bless those who bless you, And the one who curses you I will curse.

As the wise sage MC HAMMER once said, “You can’t touch this!”

They are lost, they are sad, and I am praying for their healing now and I will continue when all the dust has settled. Because…


-Thomas James – “The Calling: A Voice In The Dead Woods”

So, I will not do anything to avenge myself, and I suggest all of you in similar circumstances learn this lesson and do the same. For God has bigger plans for us all.

Romans 12:19

Dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath: for it is written, Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord.

We are not meant to take up the fight for ourselves. I have done this in the past and the results always backfired. Every bomb you drop on your enemy you drop on your own head…. Unless you are passing gas, and then by all means, God is cool with a drive by dusting of the knuckleheads in your life.

My friend Diane who BTW ROCKS, said we have a choice in life. We can choose to have PEACE or we can choose to be RIGHT. But, if we want to be RIGHT you have to get into the FIGHT. Oh what a wise sage she is!

So, I choose this day which God I will serve, not ADAM, but THE LORD OF HOSTS. And God says the fight is HIS, not ours.

Deuteronomy 1:30

The LORD your God which goeth before you, he shall fight for you, according to all that he did for you in Egypt before your eyes;

To win the day we simply sit back and let the Lord do his work. Sure, we will suffer the knucklehead comments of our enemies, and the sting of deceit and betrayal. This much we know to be true. However, there is only one-way to end such anguish and it is never found repaying evil with evil.

Matthew 26: 52

Then said Jesus unto him, Put up again thy sword into his place: for all they that take the sword shall perish with the sword.

In dodge ball when the ball is thrown at you if you simply catch it your adversary is out of the game! You absorb their blow and you do not return it. While the ball is in your hands, you are safe. But the instant you throw that ball back into play, trying to hit someone to WIN THE DAY, you better watch out because that ball will be coming right back at ya!

When you repay evil with evil, you are simply prolonging your own suffering. This is why we must NEVER repay evil with evil but with Good.

Now this doesn’t mean you roll over and play dead and let these Meat-Heads walk, and talk, all over you. You have to be wise as a serpent and harmless as a dove.

When a fox is spoiling the vine, you find a way to keep the fox out. It may take a couple of different approaches, changing phone lines, moving, praying all the time LOL… but in the end, they will hear as Herod heard…

Luke 13:32

Go ye, and tell that FOX, Behold, I cast out devils, and I do cures today and tomorrow, and the third day I shall be perfected.

The negative thoughts, the pain, the insecurities that these attacks caused IN US, will go away! We won’t let this nonsense bother us anymore. And God’s love is healing us from the wounds of our adversaries (who, by now, we know are there for our own spiritual growth) and finally, because of all we have endured, I say THANK YOU to those who have hurt me for on the Third Day I shall be perfected because your wicked devises have done a great work in me!

p.s. THIRD DAY – symbolic of a trimester (birth)

Yes God will use their attacks, to weed out every insecurity that I may have had about being abandoned by my wife and vice versa. This has helped us both to trust each other in the face of adversity. And we have been through health problems, financial problems, blended family problems, but this has been a true test of late. And we have received a strong “C+” – What? that’s above average settle down peanut gallery. (snicker, snicker)

I love her more now than ever before, and she thinks I’m the bees knees babies!

Listen, people don’t do, and say, cruel things because they are at peace. They don’t hurt others because they know joy. They hurt because they are hurt. They attack because they hate themselves!

“Father forgive them for they know not what they do!”

That’s why we must say “I’m rubber your glue! Im going to sit back and pray for you!”

We must “Do Unto others as we would WANT DONE TO US”

Like many of you, I have had my share of persecution. And every time I repaid injury for injury, I got hurt more. But when I stepped back and LET LOVE RULE as the Prophet Lenny Kravitz said… I watched my enemies change, as well as their situations.

“You sit still down river long enough, you’ll see the bodies of your enemies float past you”


Matthew 5:25

Agree with thine adversary quickly, whiles thou art in the way with him; lest at any time the adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison.

Jesus gave us the keys of the kingdom, and those keys deal with reaping and sowing. If you want good in your life, start doing good. FORGIVE AND LIVE!

Look at what Jesus taught and put these principles into action. We can return to the Lord and have peace in out heart.

“If I say I love God and hate my brother, I am a liar.”

So, let’s start by following these simple rules and watch things in our lives turn around.


Galatians 6:7

Whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap.

Luke 6 36-38

Judge not, and you shall not be judged.

Condemn not, and you will not be condemned

Forgive and you will be forgiven

For with the same measure that ye mete withal it shall be measured to you again.

Luke 6:29

And unto him that smiteth thee on the one cheek offer also the other; and him that taketh away thy cloak forbid not to take thy coat also.

Matthew 5:7

Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy.

2 Corinthians 9:6

But this I say, He which soweth sparingly shall reap also sparingly; and he which soweth bountifully shall reap also bountifully.

What we do to others, we actually are doing to ourselves, even when it comes to retaliating against our enemies.

This is why I will repay the (adversaries for our good) with the shake of the head, a shrug of the shoulders, and a prayer sent up on high…

Them silly kids, I’ll say. They know not what they do. Knuckleheads.

In every one of these article I usually receive some cool revelation and I hope you stuck with me to the end for this one. Because it JUST HIT ME! And it is good for you to hear this.

Matthew 5:38

Ye have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth:

We have been taught by Jesus that the “eye for an eye” philosophy needs to be thrown out.

But this is only in reference to the physical action of causing physical or emotional harm to one who has done such to you.

This DOES NOT mean that the law of Reaping and Sowing, Cause and Effect is not still a GREAT TRUTH.

Whatever we do to one, will be done to us, in one way or another. This is why Jesus’ advice is so important for us all to hear and implement in our lives.

39 But I say unto you, That ye resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also.

Why would Jesus say to do this?

Like my dodge ball story, (which I never got pick to play as a kid) If a man strikes you and you strike the man back… you will find you have another fist coming your way.

For one reason or another, God thought we needed or deserved such attacks and abuses. And if, after receiving these attack, we strike out and do the same to our enemies at the moment (for any other reason than self-defense) we are throwing the karmic ball back into play.

If someone talks bad about you, DON’T talk bad about them.

If someone mocks you, DON’T mock them.

Don’t repay evil with evil.

Romans 12:21

Be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good.

Many don’t understand why Jesus was all about feeding your enemy and praying for them. Well the feeding part is really symbolic of showing them love and compassion. Showing them what they have not shown you. The BREAD FROM HEAVEN is the TRUTH and the Water is the SPIRIT OF GOD.

I would be a big fibbie pants if I were to say I am walking this truth out ALL THE TIME. I am not, but I am trying, and I pray all of you will let God be your Victor. So when trouble comes don’t get ready to rumble, just simply walk away. The bigger man is always the one who wins the day.

Peace everyone!



“The Truth Will Change You”

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01 03 1964 Is In The Year Of What Animal Sierra Leone’s National Heritage

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Sierra Leone’s National Heritage


The term museum is from Ancient Greek, Mouseoin, which means “the place sacred to the muses.” According to Greek Mythology Mouseoin was the temple of muses, the nine goddesses that presided over poetry, songs, the arts, sciences and learning. In Greek Mythology the nine goddesses were the daughters of Zeus, the King of the gods and Mnemosyne, the goddess of memory. The Greeks believed that the muses lived on Mount Olympus with their leader, the god Apollo (American Association of Museums, 2000). In the 3rd century B.C. during the rule of the Ptolemy Dynasty, when the Greeks ruled over Ancient Egypt, Ptolemy 1 Soter founded an institution for literary and scientific study in Alexandria and called it a museum. With the revival of learning during the Renaissance in the 15th century A.D. Italian scholars kept their collections of historical materials in rooms called museums. The Renaissance nobles also had adorned their palaces with art, sculpture and collections of curiosities. It was much later that private collections passed to public ownership and were put on display. For example Pope Sixtus IV opened the Capitoline Museum to the public in 1447 and this was followed by Cesarini also in Rome. The first museum to be operated as a national institution was the British Museum in 1753 followed by the Palace of Louvre in Paris in 1793.Other famous museums are the Art Gallery in which the Mona Lisa is portrayed, the Metropolitan in New York, the Prado in Madrid, the Hermitage in Petersburg (Leningrad), and the Smithsonian in Washington (Sears, 2006).


‘There is always something new from Africa’ stated Pliny who lived from 23-79 A.D. This vast continent of Africa has some many firsts. The north of Africa is believed to be the cradle of civilization that is Ancient Egypt. It was in Ancient Egypt that the first museum came into existence. Further south are almost impassible barriers of desert and tropical forests, and beyond these, lies the greater part of Africa known to the Arabs as Bilad-as-Sudan, the land of the Black people. It was in this part of Africa in the Rift Valley in East Africa also known as Eastern Sudan that the oldest form of human life was discovered. The Western Sudan (West Africa) can boast of powerful ancient empires like Ghana, Songhai, Mali and Kanem Bornu.

Sierra Leone too has a very rich and diverse heritage. She has an abundant natural life; her archaeological sites date back to the Old Stone Age in Africa. Oral traditions date back to the time when the ancestors of current inhabitants settled in their respective areas. There is a great diversity of numerous secret societies with their associated cultural materials such as the Poro, Bondo, Gbagbani, Kofo, Regbainlay and Mathoma Secret Societies. There are also the old traditional arts and crafts monuments and relics which commemorate people and events long ago. This heritage has been built upon over the years by the works of sculptors, architects, painters, musicians, blacksmiths, goldsmiths and other creators of form and beauty. Up to 1957 Sierra Leone had no museum. The Monument and Relics Commission of 1st June 1947 provided the basis for the protection and preservation of ancient, historical and natural monuments, relics and other objects of archaeological, ethnographical (traditional Art ) and historical or other scientific interest as laid down by the Act. These historical relics were scattered all over the country collecting dust and mould in government ware houses, while her ethnographical treasures were being destroyed by weather wood-boring insects. In 1954, Sir Robert de Zouche Hall, a former Governor General challenged the Sierra Leone Society to create a National Museum for the country. This museum, according to the Governor, can contribute to the growth of national pride by collecting and preserving objects and making them available for contemplation and study. This challenge was taken up by M.C.F. Easmon and others with the formation of a Museum Sub-Committee (Cummings, 1996). The Old Cotton Tree Railway Station was acquired and rehabilitated, with the help of government, and was opened on the 10th December, 1957. The National Museum, according to Sir Maurice Dorman, was intended to collect, put in order and preserve the work of man’s hands that was fast disappearing from the lives of Sierra Leoneans. The National Museum, he added, ‘should be a place where the illiterate man can be inspired by the display of what is best in his culture, both in the past and present, there-by keeping a record of Sierra Leone for posterity.’


The Sierra Leone National Museum covers three areas: Archaeology, History and Ethnography. In the area of Archaeology there are large steatite (soapstone) heads, the Maye Yafe or Chiefs’ devils. These are believed to bring good luck to Chiefs and bad luck to the common man. There are figures called Nomoli, which are an enigma and are of unknown antiquity. The curator believes that these figures date back to the Middle Stone Age. There is a large collection of poetry and potsherds and it is believed that some of the pots on display in the museum date back to B.C. days. There is also an abundance of Old Stone Age tools such as choppers, hand axes, and polished New Stone Age tools together with many steatite bored stones which were once used as currency and as digging stick weights. In the History area the most prominent item is the original Charter of Sierra Leone signed in 1799 by King George III by which the settlement became a British Colony. There are also models of the de Reuter Stone on which the Admiral engraved his name after sacking Bunce and Tasso Islands in 1664. Bunce Island was a depot from where slaves were transported across the Atlantic Ocean. There are effigies of the late Sir Milton Margai, the first Prime Minister of Sierra Leone and Bai Bureh, the last warrior chief who fought the British from 1898-1902. There is also a host of materials drawn from the colonial period such as canon, staffs of chiefs, swords, medals, coins, photographs, paintings and documents. In the area of Ethnography (Traditional Art) there are fully dressed masquerading dancers e.g. Sowei of the Bondo Society, Goboi, the regalia of Chiefs, Secret Society paraphernalia, exquisite carved masks, carvings in human and animal form, indigenous musical instruments like the drums which are integral in African rituals in birth, initiation and death, textile, basketry and other crafts. The Sierra Leone National Museum has a magnificent collection of artifacts and is truly a store house of the nation’s cultural treasures (Sierra Leone National Museum Prospectus, 2013).


The Sierra Leone National Museum preserves the national heritage; it is a complex institution for research, education and culture. It is an instrument of mass education, which caters for the needs of literates and illiterates, both young and old. Children of school going age make up the largest public served by the National Museum through guided tours. Apart from school groups individual children visit the museum every day. The museum exhibits are relevant to the school syllabi more so in disciplines like History, Social Studies, Agricultural Science and Civics. Thus essay and poster competitions are run by the museum for children. Since Art is the most natural means of expression of people who can’t read and write the exhibits in the National Museum are so arranged that they can speak for themselves. The museum is an important research center. It is research that brings the museum to life and makes it much more than a repository of dead objects. As research center the National Museum is the only place in the country where someone can find such historical documents like the Sierra Leone Charter. Thus students from both higher and tertiary institutions as well as researchers (locally and internationally) make extensive use of museum material in writing their projects. Some of the topics widely researched on in the museum are the origins of St John’s Maroon Church, tourism as instrument of socioeconomic development, traditional schools in Sierra Leone during pre-colonial, colonial and contemporary times, interment rites of paramount chiefs among different ethnic groups in the country, and mining in pre-colonial Sierra Leone.

The Sierra Leone National Museum is not only established for elites and the scholarly community but also to provide a service for the general public. The basic purpose of the museum is to enable the public to know and appreciate under conditions of display the artifacts which the institution collects, preserves and protects. Entrance to the museum is free because it is not only a national museum but also part of an international agreement (International Council of Museum) to which the Sierra Leone National Museum is a signatory should. Sierra Leoneans are aware of the fact that the National Museum forms an integral part of the local culture. The specimens of the cultures represented in the museum are currently in use and people are conscious of their existence and functions. The museum though national also interests non-national public composed mostly of European, American and Asian nationals, most of these are ignorant of African culture in general and Sierra Leonean culture in particular. Paradoxically the museum has touched both an informed and quite largely illiterate as well as educated and totally uninitiated publics. The following are a few remarks from the Museum’s Visitors Book:

• It is spectacular, keep it up! (A Nigerian).

• We entered into African mysteries (An Italian).

• Very interesting! Very painful especially the slaves (An American).

• Most and the best experience in Local History).

• It goes a long way in preserving our cultural heritage (A Sierra Leonean).

The Sierra Leone National Museum is an exhibition and communication center. It provides contact with real objects. It disseminates information about Sierra Leonean Art. Art pieces are themselves documents which are eloquent. From naturalistic figures held in the museum people can learn about the dress of the time. A sculptured piece reveals a little more than the person portrayed. For instance a carved warrior or hunter in the museum shows the type of weapon used at the time. The museum steers clear of ethnic distribution in the country of its objects. It aims at representing rather than pointing out local peculiarities. For example Rhythmic Arts (musical instruments), Occupations (fishing gear, basketry and pottery), cultural objects (insignia of Chiefs and bride money), and Women’s Activities (ornaments, combs and cooking utensils)) are portrayed in the museum. The reason being that both urban and rural visitors are anxious to see their ways of life reflected in the “Ancestral Home,” which is the museum. As local visitors go round the museum they search attentively for utensils, tools, weapons or familiar faces and are usually delighted or sometimes complaint to staff when these are absent. In brief the Museum plays a very important part at national and international levels. It helps the public to appreciate articles illustrating history. As repository of the national heritage it helps people to find the elements of their past and to acquire new spiritual wealth. The Museum renews in Sierra Leoneans a sense of belonging to a particularly civilization and stimulates in them the spirit of national pride and cohesion which are essential ingredients in nation building.


The Sierra Leone National Museum is a member of several professional bodies both at home and overseas. It has been a member of the International Council of Museums (ICOM) since 1964. The Museum is also a member of the Organization for Museums, Monuments and Sites in Africa (OMMSA), the cultural arm of the then Organization of African Unity (OAU), currently African Union(AU ). The Museum is represented in the Arts Education Association of Sierra Leone, which in the past organized Art Festivals in schools and colleges; it is also represented in the Public Archives Commission and the Sierra Leone Association of Librarians, Archivists and Information Professionals(SLAALIP).

The Sierra Leone National Museum continues to enjoy cordial relationship with UNESCO which has assisted in staff training and supply of equipment; the West African Museums Program in Dakar(WAMP),which has conducted several workshops on conservation and preservation of artifacts. Foreign Missions too have contributed immensely to the development of the museum. For example the Federal Republic of Germany in Sierra Leone erected an extension of the museum as a bicentenary gift. The French Embassy in Sierra Leone through the French Cooperation Technical Department rehabilitated the Old Cotton Tree Museum Building. The United States of America, through the Department of the United States Information Services has on several occasions invited the curator to visit the USA which has resulted to close links with the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, the Museum of African Art in Washington, Metropolitan Museum in New York and the Museum of Contemporary Art in Chicago. The U S Embassy was also instrumental in the twinning relationship with the Museum of Coastal History, St. Simons Island, Georgia. Through these links the Museum was supplied with the results of Indiana-American research projects, pamphlets, calendars of coming events, posters and future exhibitions. The twinning with the Museum of Coastal History, St Simons Island, Georgia, USA has led to the investigation of the “Trans-Atlantic Linkage-the Sierra Leone and the Gullah/Geechee Connection.” There has been a series of exchange visits between curators and the Great Spring Lecture was delivered at Fort Frederica, St Simon Island in 1995. In the same year a joint exhibition and a symposium was held on the “Trans-Atlantic Linkage” in Georgia.


One of the primary concerns of the Sierra Leone National Museum is how to combat the theft and illicit exportation of cultural artifacts. The Government of Sierra Leone has formulated a comprehensive national policy with statutes as contained in the Monuments and Relics Ordinance of 1947. The Ordinance provides for the preservation of ancient, historical and natural monuments, relics and other objects of historical, ethnographical and scientific interest. Any person who desires to export from the country any ethnographical item must submit it to the National Museum; a license will be issued which should be shown to customs officers at the point of departure. If an intended item for exportation has cultural, historical or archaeological value it will be retained in the country as part of the national heritage. Anyone found violating any of the regulations is liable to criminal prosecution under the provision of the Ordinance. If found guilty the person concerned will have to pay a fine of two hundred pounds sterling. In default of payment, the person will serve a prison sentence not exceeding six months. However, in spite of the efforts made by the Museum to protect cultural property smuggling of artifacts continues. It is disturbing to note that in Sierra Leone educated and intelligent persons purchase, sell and export protected cultural materials just for the sake of business promotion. What is more Sierra Leone has porous borders which people use to advantage in smuggling cultural materials out of the country with impunity.

Further the public service that the National Museum plays warrants public expenditure, especially if standards are to be maintained. Sadly government grants to the museum are meagre and this poses another challenge for the running of the museum. Often salaries paid to staff are not only discouraging often but delayed in payment. In 2014 for instance so much salary backlog was owed staff that staff struck and the museum ceased to operate for a while. Besides the National Museum does not have branches in the provinces but only centered in the capital city, Freetown. Staff are limited in number and ill-motivated. Hardly are they engaged in capacity building due to lack of funds. This has led to massive staff turn-over. More over working in the museum is not well regarded nation-wide. Most people view it as a job for school drop outs. Thus young people do not like pursuing museology as a career. Also staff do not embark on massive public education on the importance of the museum in society. Little wonder why school going children form the largest number of visitors to the museum as opposed to government functionaries and key stake holders in the country. Even the line ministry, the Ministry of Tourism and Cultural Affairs, the Museum is under does not seem to understand its importance in nation building. The Ministry priorities its activities and supporting the museum is not a priority. Thus in time of economic stringency the museum is a prone area to swindle funds (Sierra Leone National Museum Prospectus, 2013). If therefore government wants the National Museum to continue playing an ever increasing role in national development there is every need for government functionaries to give second thought on how best they can support it to meet this goal. Where the challenges faced by management are addressed the museum too can help generate the much needed foreign exchange in addition to its preservation of the national heritage.

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