A Long Time Ago Only One Type Of Animal Existex Leonardo Da Vinci – Leonardo’s Animals Part 1 of 2

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Leonardo Da Vinci – Leonardo’s Animals Part 1 of 2

Leonardo da Vinci was born in 1492 on a Tuscan farm in Anchiano, Italy, near the town of Vinci, where he spent most of his childhood. He was the son of Ser Piero and a girl named Catherine who worked for him. After Leonardo was born, father and mother did not remain together. Only recently have details of Leonardo’s birth mother come to light. In 2002, Alessandro Vezzosi, Director of the Leonardo da Vinci Museum in Vinci, Italy, told the press that they had found substantial evidence that Leonardo’s mother was a slave rather than a peasant girl, as previously believed.(1) Vezzosi continued to reported that Leonardo’s father was a craftsman who owned a Middle Eastern slave named Catherine. And, according to their discovery, a few months after Catherine gave birth to Leonardo, she married one of the workers.

Leonardo lived in Anchiana and Vinci until he was eight years old. Afterwards, he moved to Florence with his father. When Leonardo was 14, he was apprenticed to the famous sculptor and painter Andrea del Verrocchio in Florence. At that time, Verrocchio was the leading Florentine artist. By the time Leonardo was between 21 and 23 years old, he had become a very skilled painter. Verrocchio allowed Leonardo to help with an important painting, The Baptism of Christ (Uffizi Gallery, Florence). Leonardo painted the background and the kneeling angel. It is said that when Verrocchio saw that Leonardo could paint better than anyone he had ever seen, including himself, he gave up painting forever. Verrocchio decided he would concentrate on sculpture.

Leonardo da Vinci was said to have a great love for animals, and his diaries further illustrate this. He was a vegetarian, at least in the latter part of his life (we have no clear evidence that he was a strict vegetarian in his early days). He wrote, “The time will come when people like me will look upon the killing of animals as they now look upon the killing of men.” He also said, “The Littlest Cat is a masterpiece.”

In the 1480s, Leonardo painted the Lady with Ermine. The lady in the painting is Cecilia Gallerani, the 17-year-old mistress of Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan. She wears an ermine for three reasons. First, for the Duke of Milan, having been appointed to the Order of Ermine by Ferdinand I of Naples, the ermine was the heraldic symbol on his coat of arms. Second, the ermine was considered a symbol of virtue and purity. And finally, it was a play on Cecilia Gallerani’s name since the Greek name for ermine is “gallee”.

In Leonardo’s notebooks, he wrote that the ermine eats every other day. Most likely, the ermine, an animal related to the sable and the weasel, stayed in the studio while the painting was being completed. In the Renaissance period, soft-haired paintbrushes were made from the tips of ermine tails. Brushes were also made from squirrel fur and attached to goose or chicken feathers—another reason ermine could have been at home in the studio.

Leonardo da Vinci included cats in many of his sketches. On a sheet of animal sketches in his notebook, the artist portrayed more than twenty cats and a dragon. He drew cats in various poses, alone, with other cats, and hugging and holding. His sketches are vivid and reveal the solemn love he had for cats.

Throughout the mid-to-late 1470s, Leonardo worked on a series of different studies related to the subject of the Madonna and Child Christ, holding a cat. It was originally thought that no paintings existed beyond his initial studies of these paintings. Recently; however, the Madonna with the Cat, which is in the collection of industrialist Carlo Noya in Savona, Italy, was discovered to be a painting by none other than Leonardo. (2) The painting is based on a legend about a cat that was born at the same time as baby Jesus.

Other sketches for paintings that feature animals and are based on a legend or myth is that of Leda and the Swan. Although no actual paintings exist, there are countless drawings. The story is that Leda was seduced by the Lord Zeus in the form of a swan and gave birth to two eggs, which resulted in the creation of Helen of Troy with Clytemnestra and Castor with Pollux.

Although there are countless studies and sketches made by Leonardo, only 13 or 14 actual paintings exist today. One of them is the Madonna and Child with Saint Anne, painted between 1508 and 1510. All the figures shown are related to each other and the baby Jesus is shown holding a small lamb tightly. Da Vinci painted the lamb with sensitivity and detail. The lamb is a symbol of the sacrificial death of Jesus Christ for mankind. Leonardo’s animal subjects are grounded in reality and filled with vitality.

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An Average American Is Resposible For How Many Animal Deaths Comments: How to Get Revenge Without Doing Anything Against Your Enemies

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Comments: How to Get Revenge Without Doing Anything Against Your Enemies

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An Animal Hunted And Eaten By A Predator Is Called Back to Basics 3 – Sense and Sensuality

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Back to Basics 3 – Sense and Sensuality

For the final part of the triad I would like to talk about sensory awareness and maybe try to discern its relevance in day to day living. It comes over in many forms, well five to be precise, one for each of the senses and gives our lives embellishment for variety is the spice of life. Imagine for a moment that everything looked the same, and tasted the same, what a dull life that would be.

Sensory awareness is one of nature’s gifts originally put in place to safeguard our health. It evolved over time as we got more discerning. Smell and taste would be a good example so I will start with these. Firstly smell, originally it was put in place as an aid to hunting prey and a defence against the predator and a means to knowing whether something was edible. Now hand in hand with smell on the second point went taste. If it smelt wrong and did not taste right you did not eat it. These two senses are pretty much interlinked for if you lose your sense of smell it impairs your sense of taste. That was basic survival and no more. With time though we evolved past basic survival and these senses evolved with us. We no longer used our sense of smell as a hunting aid and so it got less acute over distance though more refined by way of compensation as did our taste for we started to eat a more varied diet with a penchant for seasoning. Basically we got self conscious about our food, invented gluttony and lived off the fat of the land. I had better elaborate on gluttony awhile so you might get a little understanding. Food as anyone will tell you tastes better when you are hungry and by hungry I don’t mean just peckish I mean hungry. Once this hunger is sated you feel full and stop eating for food seems to lose its taste. With gluttony however you do not eat when you are truly hungry you eat because you like the taste. It gives you pleasure to do this so it satisfies your desire and not your need. The original four types of taste were sweet, sour, bitter and salt. These had their uses for bitter usually meant inedible as there was a good chance it was poisonous. Sour generally meant it had gone off and so was also to be avoided. Sweet told you it was safe and salt being essential to life also had a place. From these four types our sense of taste evolved. We started to blend them together and get different tastes and a more discerning palate. We hungered for the taste and not the sustenance and thus gluttony came into being. The blending of these different tastes went hand in hand with the blending of the different aromas and so our sense of smell also evolved to help us to define them. The ability to taste comes to us through taste buds situated on the tongue and side of the mouth through the medium of saliva. The saliva starts to dissolve the substance and from this you get the taste. The ability to smell is achieved by special receptors called chemoreceptors found in the lining of the nasal cavity. These can detect chemicals that are either carried in the air or dissolved in water and they transmit to the brain to be decoded and detected as a particular smell.

Next on the list would be touch, well more precisely pain. Another sensory aid put in place so you might not get burned. Our whole body is sensitive to touch, through it we discern temperature and pressure and detect pain. It is a safeguard to our physical health and our well being externally for it lets you know, through the medium of pain, when things are amiss. Touch can also give pleasure and be very therapeutic. Certain parts of the body react to touch. The base of the feet would be a good example to pursue. Any reflexologist will tell you that at the base of your feet is a map of the body. By manipulating certain parts of the base (the top and toes also have a place) you can administer healing all across the body. When we used to walk bare footed we used to heal ourselves en route for the uneven floor would be our masseur and do a fairly good job in the process. The ability to touch is made possible by specialised sets of receptors located in the skin but also in muscles and other internal areas of the body. These transmit, via different nerve pathways, to the brain to be decoded and detected.

The next sense on the list is the ability to hear, a very useful tool to have when out hunting or being hunted. It is also there to warn of danger, the rattle snake and the buzzing bee would be good examples as with snow-slides, landslides and other dangerous natural phenomenon. Along with the ability to hear you have the ability to make noise. At its most basic a growl or a warning shout but it has evolved to communication. The ability to hear comes to us through receptors, often hairlike, that vibrate in response to sound waves. These are air vibrations with a frequency between 20 Hz and 20,000 Hz. They trigger off an electrical impulse in a sensory nerve which is transmitted to the brain which decodes it and interprets it as sound.The ability to make sound comes from the mouths manipulation of the vocal cords through the medium of breath.

Finally, the ability to see, the most useful sensory gift we have. The ability to discern light into colour is done through light receptors in the retina of the eye. These receptors are called Photoceptors and are pigment containing cells. The pigments undergo chemical changes in light of different wave lengths, which generate electrical impulses that travel to the brain via a sensory optic nerve. There are two types of cells containing these pigments, cones which allow for the colour to be detected and rods which allow for night vision for they are sensitive to dim light though they do not detect colour.

We evolved past basic survival and our understanding got a little more discerning. Where once we could barely grunt we became more articulate. We could express our thoughts and feelings, not only through the voice we could do it through the mediums of sight and sound. We invented art in a bid to stimulate sensory pleasure and add to our newly found sense of awareness. So sensory pleasure next then. What actually is it and where does it come from? To find that out we have to understand a little about the brain so I guess I had better start at the core. The brain stem, our instinctive drive for self and species preservation, these are a set of laws enshrined in our being. I have mentioned them in numbers and numerous things but I will relate them once more. They are that every organism to the best of its ability to,

Survive in the habitat around it

Survive in the climatic environment around it

Survive in the social climate around it

Find its niche in the balance of the eco system

Defend itself from a prey’s point of view and hunt from a predators

Find itself a mate for the perpetuation of its species

Give the next generation the best chance of survival that it can

Through the medium of evolution to achieve its’ purpose.

These laws mould our life and give us our drive. Behind the stem we have the Cerebellum which monitors and corrects body movement and above and in front are the Amygdala, the Hippocampus and the Hypothalmus. These are glands and sub organs that together with the Limbic Cortex form a protective cowl over the brain stem and comprise our emotional brain. It contains our capacity for pain and pleasure, joy, anger, sex and hunger. Wrapped around the Limbic Cortex and divided into two hemispheres by the Corpus Callosum, a bridge of nerve fibres, is the Cerebal Cortex. It is here we think, remember, learn, dream, fantasize and hallucinate. Sensory pleasure comes from the emotional part of the brain. It is the carrot to the stick of sensory pain. It is the joy of sex in the act of procreation. It is the taste and smell of food when you are hungry. It is the heightening of sensual awareness activated from the emotional brain in its role as the drive wheel of the survival brain. In much the same way as a laboratory rat it guides you, through the mediums of pleasure and pain, to uphold nature’s laws. Within the emotional brain lies the Hypothalmus, the mad scientist, this controls the release of endorphins, along with your body temperature, your sex drive, appetite and thirst and basically your moods and behaviour. It even controls your deep sleep so you can’t hide from it at night. With its assistants the Hippocampus which co ordinates the storage of memory and navigation and the Amygdala which process the emotions it reinforces Mother Nature’s will on one hand and makes you aware of your body’s needs on the other. The final part of the emotional brain is the Limbic Cortex, on a metaphysical level this is the purpose that you serve, your truth, this fuses the inner individual to the outside world. Basically it is your perceptions of reality on a higher plain and on day to day living. From here you get both joy and sadness but also a sense of purpose.

Now the final part of the brain is the superior brain, the Cerebral Cortex and its bridge the Corpus Callosum. The Cerebral Cortex is divided left and right into two hemispheres. The left is our rational side, analytical, logical and calculative. From here we get our language and our consciousness of self. The right is our emotional side, from here comes art and music and the ability to see the big picture. It sees the forest while the left side sees the trees. It also works slightly differently to the left for it works on imagery, it hears noise and from the noise paints its own picture for every note is a different colour.

The three parts of the brain are the result of evolution and so are built over each other like three concentric circles. The smallest one the basic survival brain is called the Archipallium or reptilian brain, the next, the emotional brain is called the Paleopallium or old mammalian brain and the last. The superior brain is called the Neopallium or new mammalian. There is a lot more to the brain than I have mentioned but hopefully that will give you a very rough guide to sate your left hemisphere. To get the true understanding you have to take the right hand path for that holds the bigger picture. The survival brain is the first level of understanding. A being with the ability to recreate and the emotional brain is the next step on the evolutionary ladder. It now has some understanding though at this level it is still controlled by its instinct through the mediums of pleasure and pain, joy and fear. This is Man before he evolved and transcended the Earth Mother’s control of him. Man found free will and nature’s laws though still buried with in him now had an ego to contend with. You see when Adam ate the apple he got the power of discernment, quite a mixed blessing for with it comes self consciousness and that gives us an ego. Where once man served Mother Nature he now served this and so developed a few negative emotions along the way. His self centredness said that instead of just surviving in the habitat around him he wanted to excel in it. His dwellings got bigger and more ornate, he got avaricious. Instead of migrating with the seasons he stayed over winter and battened down the hatches, he got slothful. To survive in the social climate around him he got envious and moved in next door to a fellow called Jones. He still had his reproductive urge to perpetuate the species although it was not confined to when his mate was ready to ovulate, he got lecherous. He still wanted to give his offspring the best chance of survival as this was a matter of pride and anger was there to erupt should he want to defend himself, though with hunting out of fashion it took the form of war warmongering. Instead of trying to fit into the eco system around him he started to take more than he needed and got gluttonous. And that is how the seven deadly sins came to be. He also had the virtues to contend with so his powers of discernment were pretty well served.

I suppose the next question would be what makes us serve a purpose for surely our free will would over ride it. To answer that you will have to understand that man by nature is an emotional animal. By serving a purpose it fills him with love. This is done through the hypothalamus through a thing called pleasure. You serve this cause because it pleases you to do so, you also get a sense of purpose and that fills a gap in your life thus also giving you a sense of well being.

To understand the brain properly might take some time so I suggest you put the kettle on (mine’s two sugars) and we’ll continue when you are comfortable.Al right? Good. Now see that cup of tea you have by your side. Well er. basically that’s it. The water is the basis of its life, the survival brain, the sugar the taste of life, the emotional brain and the tea the colour of life, the superior brain with the milk as the ego. If that sounds a little simplistic I will take it deeper. Each component goes to make the whole yet is independent in its own right. The water you can drink on its own and though tasteless it will quench your thirst. To the reptilian brain that is all that matters so as an entity it is sated. The emotional brain is slightly more refined, it is at a higher state of awareness and so has some understanding. It is the second circle of the concentric circles and so is an expansion of the first. It has no colour just a sweeter taste and to the emotional mind with its black and white mentality that means that it’s safe. The higher brain is yet another refinement, it sees colour and with it a deeper sense of taste or understanding. It is the third circle and so it is an evolution of the other two.

From an evolutionary point of view once you are fully evolved you do not need the ego and so lose it. Your physical will becomes spiritual and you embark on a life of selflessness. At this higher level of existence symbolism comes into play. The whole of this passage could be replaced with the symbol of three concentric circles and you would get the same amount of understanding. You also get a deeper understanding of the word itself as mentioned in the meaning of life and other assorted trivia. Your mind’s eye would see From the spirit seeing life through knowing and a life of God (knowing will through understanding) blessing life (word understood seeing light) you get a self of God (knowing wisdom), God’s purpose blessed understanding God and a life of God’s will (will blessed through) Yet you would just see from Homer and Marge Simpson you get Bart, Lisa and Maggie.

Now to understand how a mind actually works you have to look at photosynthesis and the humble flower. Its roots are the survival laws and from them it gets its water or its life. The stem is its understanding that grows over time and its leaves its senses that gather in knowledge. With photosynthesis the energy from the sun’s light mixed with carbon dioxide(absorbed through the leaves) and water makes carbo hydrates with oxygen as a by-product. To put it on a mental level

understanding wisdom mixed with experience from life is your mind’s energy. From this it grows in strength and understanding and gets more aware (more leaves) before coming to fruition. The flowering being an enlightened soul. (The physical will being oxygen grows with photosynthesis symbolic of enlightenment, the energy (heat) from the light is wisdom understood (light being wisdom) and carbon dioxide is the by product of breathing or experience gained through life)

Well that’s how it should work but the water might be tainted (or the flower in the shade) and growth occur in a different manner. The soul is basically a transformer on one level and a receiver on another. It receives information and transforms the imagination with this information. This information is not just spiritual it is also sensorial and sensual. The soul can feed of sensual pleasure and from this selfishness can grow. You could end up clinging to the pleasures of the material world to the exclusion of the spiritual will for ones strength is the others weakness. This would be the flower with just a little photosynthesis, stunted growth and a lot of foliage for the soul would make you more sensually aware. One is a spiritual life and the other a materialistic.

Incidentally on the spectrum of light red starts at b on the scales, orange c, yellow d, green e, blue f, indigo g and violet a. so in the words of the great Homer

D’oh! Ray me.

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A Population Of Animals In A Specific Environment With A How To Kill Stink Bugs – Employing a "Scorched Earth Policy"

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How To Kill Stink Bugs – Employing a "Scorched Earth Policy"

Do you remember the 1999 hit movie “The Matrix” in which humanity’s only hope of winning the war against the machines was to use nuclear weapons to burn the sky forever, creating a permanent, massive, very thick cloud layer and too dense for adequate sunlight to penetrate, for the robots to be able to get their solar energy from? Well (spoiler alert), that strategy didn’t work out too well and actually backfired, as the robots quickly learned to adapt and then enslave the human race to harvest their body heat for an endless and abundant source of energy to empower themselves. .

Mankind’s quest to figure out how to kill stink bugs is beginning to follow a similar plot line. Or at least it will, if some scientists within the federal government have their way. Indeed, if the government is getting involved in solving a problem, then you know it must be serious! The stink bug epidemic is something that happened by accident not too long ago, maybe within the last decade. Initially, it was only a small number of these insects brought here from abroad through several shipping crates where they may have passed through customs inspections unnoticed, the first report of their presence here was in Allentown, Pennsylvania. Now fast forward to today, and these bugs have officially been confirmed to have spread to over 33 states in the continental United States alone.

What’s the big deal about glass bugs? After all, there are thousands of different species of insects present in North America at any given time. What is so special about them that has led the government to fund research projects to investigate and prevent the spread of these insects? Why is the government spending taxpayer dollars to learn ways to kill bugs? However, these insects are not known to be harmful to humans. They don’t bite. They don’t sting. They don’t suck our blood. They do not attack other animals or insects either. They are peaceful vegetarians by nature. (Looks can be deceiving. They may look like menacing reptilian insects, but in reality they are harmless, annoying as they may be.) The threat they pose to our way of life is purely economic: These insects, in general. numbers, have been known to destroy farms.

Yes, foul odors pose a major threat to the agricultural industry. They eat all kinds of fruits and vegetables. And they do this by piercing the skin of the food and then sucking up the juices by injecting it with their saliva. So if swarms of these insects were to do this to entire farms, it stands to reason that entire crops could be destroyed in this way. Even in their native habitat in Southeast Asia, where they originated, they pose a significant threat to agricultural crops there as well. Damage to the agricultural industry can result in a loss of millions of dollars annually if the situation is left unchecked.

So what exactly is the government doing to stop the spread of this type of bug? They look at the problem from all angles. They are researching everything from pesticide use to finding out whether or not these insects have any natural predators that pose a threat to them. They are not only looking at how to kill stink bugs, but also how to simply keep their population under control.

Scientists have been unable to find any evidence that these insects are under attack by any other animal or insect in North America. However, by studying these insects in the context of their natural habitat, in the Far East, they have managed to create a clearer picture of where they fall in the natural hierarchy of the “food chain”.

As it turns out, bats are confirmed to be avid and hearty eaters of stink bugs. According to one study, a brown bat can eat up to a thousand brown marbled (marbled means having a marbled or striped appearance, according to the dictionary) stink bugs in an hour! How’s that for population control? How it sounds: You set up traps for these bugs—cages filled with bats that also contain fruit, light, and heat (the three things stink bugs are attracted to) as bait. So when the bug is lured to the cage, the bats are there to eat it. No need to call an exterminator! No messy smelly corpses to clean up. No bad smell. And best of all: free bat food! Nature will take care of how to kill the stink bugs on our behalf, without any interference from us humans.

Of course this is very impractical! How many people does the government think will be willing to keep bats as pets in our backyards to keep bugs away? If you think these insects are scary enough, then you haven’t seen bats properly! Bats, as portrayed in “Batman,” are cute little birds. But if you’ve ever seen a real bat, then you know they look like giant, big, flying rats!

And then there are other studies that have been done that reveal that these insects actually have another predator that also happens to be in the insect kingdom: wasps. However, the interest the wasps have in them is not between the wasp and the living insect. On the contrary, wasps are interested in eating the eggs laid by them! Yes, wasps pose a threat to the general stink bug population by consuming their unborn eggs, but they pose no threat to the living stink bug population.

Therefore, the introduction of wasps into the environment where insects can be found would only be useful in terms of population control of the latter. Does this mean that the government may actually be exploring the possibility of introducing wasps into environments where stink bugs are nearby, as a means of population control?

That sounds good in theory, right? We want to keep the insect population under control, so we kill the wasps. But then what happens when they are all gone? Will we have inherited a new problem? An overpopulation of wasps in our environment. This would seem an ironic, “catch 22” situation, wouldn’t it? Trading one problem for another?

It almost seems as if the mere idea of ​​introducing wasps into our environment would be somewhat akin to a “scorched earth” policy, where in order to destroy the stink bug population, we make the environment worse – not just for them, but for even us people!

Not exactly the kind of scenario one would hope to ever have to play out. But if some scientists have their way, then we may actually see the controlled release of wasps into our environment as a means of suppressing the explosive growth of the stink bug population in North America. While their goal may be to discover the best and most efficient way to kill stink bugs, they may actually be trading one problem for another.

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An Animal Whos Body Parts Extend Outwards From The Center John Styers

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John Styers

Most people only came into contact with the work of John Styers through the book “Cold Steel”.

It is important to remember that this book primarily outlines a BASIC close combat instruction course. The elements covered in this system include bayonet, knife, stick, and unarmed combat. Styers developed this “system” for BASIC training.

The framework of all these methods remains CONSISTENT throughout. The basics of using the bayonet, knife, unarmed combat, and even stick work are ALL the same.

Pay particular attention to the “stance” used for the bayonet, knife, and for unarmed engagement. SAME attitude. The ‘body’ mechanics involved in all the methods presented are basically ALL similar. This in itself demonstrates “genius”.

What we see in “Cold Steel” is NOT the STYERS method! It is a “system” developed by STYERS for use in BASIC training. John Styers was a man of both great knowledge and SKILL in a number of hand-to-hand combat.

Those who knew Styers personally have told us of his immense interest, knowledge and proven skill in a number of close combat methods. From the “French” style of bayonet fighting to “Russian” knife fighting, to boxing, wrestling, jiu-jitsu and of course “dirty” fighting.

As for the STYERS blade work as depicted in “Cold Steel”, it should also be remembered that this was only a SMALL part of Styers’ overall skill and prowess in KNIFE FIGHTING. Again this was a system of BASIC TRAINING!

Other sources demonstrate this quite demonstrably. The man was a MASTER of knife work.

Now the knife system taught in “Cold Steel” is excellent. The “problems” often cited by others have MUCH MORE to do with a lack of understanding of the tactics and techniques as “they” present them than with any practical flaws in the STYERS method.

ON TO THE METHOD ………………………………………

First, Styers trained men for BATTLES on the battlefield! NOT for a “duel”. He assumed (correctly) that in the so-called “fog” of war, people will revert to pure “animal” instinct and immediately strike to “kill”. Think about this! During the frenzy of real combat, you and your enemy are REDUCED to fighting with knives. Men kill and get killed all around you. YOUR natural instinct for SURVIVAL will grab you by the throat. You will grab that blade as strong as you can (your LIFE NOW depends on THIS ONLY WEAPON) and GO DIRECTLY IN FOR THE KILL! duel”, you are going to KILL, survive and move on to your next threat or target. Styers KNEW what a true “kill or be killed” fight was. He realized that in this plight most men will instinctively grab their knives, either in an “overhand” or “ice pick” grip or an “underhanded” type of “hammer grip”. They will ATTACK with a determined DEATH intent. THAT IS THE BASIS of the Styers Method!

Now the “elements” of the Styers method rest on BODY position, ARM position, and KNIFE position.

This is where so many “experts” go completely OFF THE TRACK. Forget about any “technique”, thrust, slash or “whatever”. WITHOUT the BASICS of proper BODY, ARM and KNIFE position, all the “technique” in the world is MEANINGLESS!

Without a REAL understanding of Styer’s BASIC tactics and what MUST be done to make it EFFECTIVE, THIS all becomes NO MORE than two men trying to cut and stab each other. THIS IS NOT what Styers had in mind.

On to “meat & potatoes”:

1. Attitude-

Whether you assume the “Styers” position from a “classic” fencer’s stance, as Styers demonstrates (for continuity) or simply pull forward (lead leg) back (real leg) one pace, as long as your UPPER torso remains square and your body rests” jumpy” on your legs you do well. BALANCE should rest on your midpoint and the back heel ELEVATED. Toes and knees pointing forward!

IMPORTANT: Body SQUARED. Torso RIGHT. Chin WITHDRAWN. BALANCE central. Rear HEEL RAISED.

2. Arm Position-

Grabbing the BLADE: Blade vertical to the ground. Thumb EXTENDED along the back strap. Slightly upward CANT or “cocking” of the blade.

Weapon with hand and arm: pulled in. Upper arm slightly back from vertical. Elbow tucked in, not away from the side. FOREARM raised in an airplane EVEN with opponents THROAT/EYES. Weapon hand MUST NOT break the lateral surface of the upper body! THIS IS KEY!

Clumsy hand: Pulled inward, like a hand carrying a weapon.

COMMON MISTAKES:

Incorrect foot placement.

Leaning over or against the opponent.

Chin/head THROW out.

WEAPON HAND EXTENDED and/or SPLAYED !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

READ THAT AGAIN!

Knife LEVEL with ground and NOT AIM at opponents EYES/THROAT!

Spread out of hand to the side.

Now the WHY’S that make this method succeed or FAIL.

Try this experiment first (THIS IS SOMETHING YOU MUST DO). Don’t even talk about this “method” if you have NOT honestly followed this example:

Grab a REALLY SHARP FIGHTING KNIFE.

EXTEND IT to FULL arm’s length with the shoulder “turned” in for extra reach.

Tell your training partner to DISTANCE the weapon to a SPAN where he feels at combative “SAFE” range. Have someone measure that distance.

RETRACT your weapon arm to a 3/4 extension and repeat. Have someone measure that distance.

CONTINUE to pull in to a semi-bent position of 90 degrees and repeat.

NOW pull the weapon back to the hip and do it all over again.

COMPARE the measurements at each “distance”. MOST people REMAIN pretty consistent with the ACTUAL “measured” safety distance from the tip of the weapon. THEY WILL ALMOST always move inward as YOUR arm moves back BUT the “measured” distance remains very small between ALL given positions.

THAT is the KEY to Styers.

Extend your arm and blade all the way out. Your partner maintains that critical safety zone FROM the tip of your very real and sharp blade. CAN YOU EASILY cut or push it from that position? Not really. A dedicated BODY lunge or step is about all you could do to close the “gap”. Too slow.

NOW-Pull that arm all the way in so that it barely breaks the lateral plane of the body. AGAIN, your training partner will have a CLEAR tendency to KEEP the measured distance from the safety zone, but HE will move in. The actual measured distance between it and the tip will vary little. HIS safety zone is STILL his safety zone.

What has changed is your ABILITY to REACH HIM in the fastest, most NON-telegraphic way.

FROM the RETRACTED arm position, SQUARED TORSO and BALANCED stance you can perform the fastest, cobra-like attacks or counter-attacks with a large amount of REACH.

ANY position other than this one taken by your enemy WILL put him at a SERIOUS disadvantage. He will almost ALWAYS offer YOU something, while YOU offer NOTHING.

His range and speed are affected by HIS position. Your range and speed are IMPROVED by yours.

IMPORTANT OF BLADE POSITION: Keep the blade tip FIRST at the angle shown. WHY? At that angle it is MUCH more difficult for the opponent to estimate the size and length of your blade. May seem like a SMALL “point”, but in a real KNIFE fight I USE anything that CAN give me an edge.

TECHNOLOGY:

ALL you REALLY need is a thrust, a snap-slash (DO NOT use the back snap cut!), a “stop-hit” and the “hand-cut”. The step over and stitch is also useful.

If “In-Quartata and Passata-soto” are NOT comfortable for you, DO NOT use them! Since BOTH moves are INTENDED to be “defensive” counterattacks against an overly committed attack, they are NOT mandatory.

The FIVE moves mentioned above are MORE than enough. PRACTICE THEM forward, backward, and flanking left and right. I personally do NOT train the “back” snapcut on the “snap slash” because I know of an incident in real combat where the blade was released from the grip on the “return” when the target reflexively shrugged their shoulder up after taking the first slash across the right temple and eyes. This is the story I’ve heard, so I won’t comment further.

GOALS: As far as “goals” go…. well the BEST real advice I can give is just GO FOR MEAT! If you see skin, GO FOR IT!

Fingers, hands, wrists, throat/neck and face. The “step over and cross” MUST be saved for the coup.

The influence of John Styer was only really worn AFTER World War II. His methods were developed during the Korean War era, long after his discharge from the USMC.

AND…………………….His job as a FLAG salesman put him in contact with military bases and militaries across the country!

There are more anecdotes and more info but this is enough for now.

I always get a “kick” when guys reject different methods and/or ideas outright. Then when I ask them to “show me” they get the WHOLE DAMN thing WRONG! Of course it looks like SHIT. BECAUSE YOU DO IT LIKE SHIT!

Okay, I hope some of you have a useful insight.

Copyright 2003 thetruthaboutselfdefense.com ©

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A Chemical Study Of Oils And Fats Of Animal Origin Aging Gracefully – A Primer for Longevity

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Aging Gracefully – A Primer for Longevity

The human body is a miracle of design. At conception, our cells are encoded with a genetic blueprint for the construction and maintenance of a full-grown adult human. If their work area is kept clean and all the necessary nutrients are provided, our cells continue to do their job perfectly. And for a lot longer than you might expect. Current thinking holds that the human body is genetically engineered to last up to 120 years. So why do so many of us wind up on the scrap pile, sputtering to a painful conclusion in our 60s and 70s? The reason is more a function of poor maintenance, how we live our lives, than it is the result of our genetic disposition or some mysterious biological clock winding down.

In other words, if people took better care of themselves, they would live longer…. a lot longer. It’s never too soon to start preparing for a healthy future. If you’re 30, 40 or 50 something, the information in this article could make the difference between aging gracefully and healthfully or going out in pain, prematurely.

In her book, Stop Aging Now, Jean Carper writes: “In the natural, universal order of things, as we get older, two critical things happen biologically to hasten aging. The rate of increase of cell damaging free radical reactions accelerates dramatically. Even worse news, your inborn abilities to diffuse and repair the damage from the free radicals – your detoxification systems – lose steam also as you age. This means that the older you get, the more damage accumulates in your cells and the more the aging process speeds up. We can never escape aging because nature’s plan builds it into our genes, some say, because nature cares little about us after 40 or 50, when we have performed our duties of reproduction, providing fresh gene pools for evolution. It becomes more difficult with time to fend off free radicals that are taking away our youth.”

Today the average life expectancy for the average American is 75.5 years. That sounds like a reasonable age, until you consider a recent Surgeon General’s report that concluded that 80% of Americans do not die of old age. They die of degenerative diseases. Diseases like cancer, heart disease, diabetes and arteriosclerosis. People don’t catch degenerative diseases like we catch a cold. We earn them over years of poor life style and inappropriate eating habits.

The aging of our cells, or senescence, is controlled primarily by two factors. Heredity (our genetic makeup) and the impact of internal and external elements that result from the way we live our lives (the kind of foods we eat, the quality of air we breathe, the amount of stress we hold in our bodies).To a degree, our life span depends upon the number of times our cells are programmed to replicate themselves (genetic potential) and the amount of time between the generations of cells. This time frame is not set in stone. The life span of cells and their replication rates are dramatically influenced by lifestyle factors like stress and the quality of our nutrition.

Many people have a fatalistic attitude about how long they will live and their potential for quality of life. The danger with this attitude is that it causes them to relinquish responsibility for taking care of themselves. For example, “If nothing I do matters, and I’m going to die anyway, why should I bother?” However, there is plenty of evidence to suggest that we can influence our potential for developing degenerative disease, improve our vitality, and improve the length and quality of our lives – regardless of the quality of our parents health or how long they lived.

Smoking, consumption of excess alcohol, rancid and oxidized fats, chemicals in food, nutrient deficient diets, overeating, stress, and pollution are all factors that speed the aging process.

One of the biggest culprits is polyunsaturated fat from vegetable oils, which can become rancid very easily. This fat absorbs oxygen molecules quickly, creating lipid hydroperoxide. In our bodies, these molecules split apart, releasing very powerful free radicals that cause a chain reaction of destruction. The overall acceleration of aging that these fats cause is even more common than heart or vascular disease. The most common sources of these fats are margarine, shortenings, and salad oils from corn, safflower and sunflower.

On the other hand, monounsaturated fats slow the aging process. They are slow to oxidize, curb free radical reactions, and lower LDL cholesterol. The best food sources of these oils are olive oil, macadamia nut oil, flaxseed oil, olives, avocados, almonds and hazelnuts. Cholesterol researcher Ancel Keys summed up the case for monounsaturated fats when he documented that Mediterranean people who use olive oil as their main source of fat have the lowest mortality rates. They are least likely to die prematurely of anything.

One of the other problems with oils is how they are used. Cooking meat, poultry, and even fish creates substances called Heterocyclic amines (HCA’s) when these meats are browned. HCA’s have been shown to cause colon, breast, pancreatic and bladder cancers in animal studies. They stimulate free radicals and damage the cell’s genetic material (DNA). Cooking at high temperatures, such as frying, grilling, broiling and barbecuing produce the most HCA’s. Roasting and baking produce less HCA’s, and stewing, boiling and poaching produce virtually no HCA’s.

Poor elimination and toxic build-up are responsible for a tremendous amount of the premature aging. Dr. Alexis Carrell, at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, took small pieces of heart tissue from a chicken embryo to produce one of the most remarkable experiments in medical history. He attempted to demonstrate that under suitable conditions, the living cell could live a very long time, perhaps indefinitely. The heart tissue was immersed in a nutrient solution from which it obtained its food. Likewise, waste material was secreted into this same solution. Every day the solution was changed, taking away waste substances and providing fresh nutrients. This chicken heart tissue lived for 29 years in this fashion. It died one day when an assistant forgot to change the metabolized polluted fluid. In other words, autointoxication claimed this great masterpiece of experimental scientific investigation. Said Carrell of this experience; “The cell is immortal. It is merely the fluid in which it floats which degenerates. Renew this fluid at intervals, give the cell something upon which to feed, and, so far as we know, the pulsation of life may go on forever.”

Constipation is the main culprit in producing toxic build-up in the body. Any of the following factors can contribute to why someone becomes constipated:

· Poor nutrition

· Ignoring the call to eliminate

· Lack of physical activity

· Emotional or mental stress

· Medications

· Lack of adequate water

To improve elimination eat plenty of high water and fiber content foods, drink plenty of water, make sure your diet includes enough minerals (especially magnesium), and acidophilus. Super greens, supplemental fiber, flaxseed tea, flaxseeds, bran, whey, brewer’s yeast, yogurt, and leafy greens are all good colon health foods.

Poor digestion and absorption deprive aging bodies of the vital nutrients they need. The human body is a self-maintaining organism, but it can only repair itself if it receives the necessary raw materials. Digestive enzymes, HcL and pancreatic enzymes can be used to promote good digestion and absorption, but the single best thing you can do for proper digestion is to be sure to chew your food thoroughly.

One of the most powerful things we can do to slow aging and increase longevity is to eat a nutrient-dense, low-calorie diet. On the island of Okinawa, there are more people over the age of 100 than in any other population. These people eat 17 to 40% fewer calories than other Japanese and have 30 to 40% less heart disease, strokes, cancer, diabetes and age-related brain disease. This is exactly the opposite of the way Americans eat (low nutrient, high calorie). Excess calories are the enemy of youth because converting them into energy requires more oxygen, which releases more free radicals (a natural by-product of metabolism). The more free radicals in our bodies, the more potential damage to the body. Restricting calories by eating less but more nutrient-dense food reduces free radical production. Experiments have shown that underfeeding animals produced higher levels of antioxidant enzymes and that these caloric restricted animals have 1/3 stronger immune systems than normal animals. The answer is to eat whole foods, which are naturally low in calories and high in nutrients

The following are keys to a longevity diet:

· Eat at least 5 to 9 servings of fruits and vegetables a day (a serving equals 1/2 cup of cooked or chopped, 1 cup of raw leafy veggies or 1 piece of fruit)

· Eat vegetables both raw and lightly cooked (raw are highest in antioxidants, but cooking lightly will help nutrient absorption

· Eat vegetables and fruits that are deeply colored. The deeper the pigment, the more antioxidants. For example: red grapes, red onions and yellow onions have much more quercetin than green grapes and white onions. Blueberries contain high amounts of antioxidant flavonoids.

The following is a list of the best antioxidant fruits and vegetables:

· Avocado – high in glutathione, the widest acting antioxidant. Eating avocados lowers and improves blood cholesterol better than a low-fat diet.

· Berries – blueberries, cranberries, raspberries all loaded with antioxidants and protect us from premature aging.

· Broccoli – contains a broad spectrum of antioxidants including sulforaphane, discovered by Johns Hopkins scientists. Fed to animals, broccoli slashed cancer rates by 2/3. Other antioxidants in broccoli include vitamin C, betacarotene, quercetin, and glutathione.

· Cabbage – especially savoy cabbage, has the strongest antioxidants. Cabbage accelerates the disposal a harmful form of estrogen that promotes breast cancer. Researchers in New York found that about 70% of a large group of women who ate cabbage started burning off dangerous estrogen within 5 days.

· Carrots – a recent Harvard study found that women who ate carrots at least 5 times a week reduced their risk of having a stroke by 68%. The betacarotene in one carrot (6 mg) eaten daily cuts lung cancer risk in half.

· Citrus fruit – an orange is a complete package of every class of natural anti-cancer inhibitors known including carotenoids, terpenes, flavonoids and vitamin C. Grapefruit reduces cholesterol and may reverse arteriosclerosis – contains glutithione that fights off all kinds of free radical damage.

· Grapes – contain 20 antioxidants in the skin and seeds. The more colorful the skin, the more antioxidants. Red and purple grapes are more powerful than white grapes.

· Raisins – have 3 to 5 times more antioxidant content than fresh grapes

· Onions – loaded with antioxidants. Onions prevent cancer, raise HDL cholesterol. Red and yellow onions are the richest food in quercetin which inactivates cancer-causing agents, is anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-viral.

· Spinach – high in lutein and betacarotene, reduces risk of cancer, heart disease, high blood pressure, strokes, cataracts, macular degeneration. Spinach cuts the risk of macular degeneration by 25%. It’s also rich in folic acid, a brain and artery protector

· Tomatoes – The richest and only reliable source of lycopene which preserves mental and physical functioning among the elderly. High blood levels of lycopene reduce the risk of pancreatic and cervical cancer as well as other cancers of the digestive tract. Cooking and canning tomatoes does not destroy lycopene.

Eating foods high in antioxidants is smart, but limiting the production of free radicals makes even more sense. There are plenty of things a person can do to limit free radical production in their bodies. Exercise puts more stable oxygen in the system. Poorly oxygenated tissue is more prone to free radical damage than tissue with healthy amounts of oxygen. Chlorine in water, pesticides in food, and smog are all toxic to the body. You may not be able to do a lot about smog, but you can drink purified water and eat organically grown produce and meats. Stress promotes formation of free radicals, so it’s very important to learn to manage stress. Maintain healthy intestines. The colon produces more free radicals than any other part of the body. Keep it clean and running properly. Repopulate the colon with bifidobacteria, a natural enemy of pathogenic bacteria. Get enough sleep. Melatonin, a powerful antioxidant, is produced during sleep. Sleep not only restores tissues, its also important for removing free radicals from the body. Drink plenty of water. It helps absorb the damaging effects of an excited form of oxygen called singlet oxygen (which is a free radical). If we’re drinking enough, this free radical will be absorbed into the water as heat and will be harmless. If we’re not drinking enough water it will damage the tissues.

In Stop Aging Now, Jean Carper says “Aging – the detrimental changes that occur as you get older – is actually in large part, a monumental, progressive deficiency disease. As we get older, our bodies are less and less able to extract nutrients from our food because our digestive systems weaken with age. But our older bodies don’t require less nutrients to stay well, and in many cases require more to avoid disease. High quality, easily-absorbed supplements seem like the best insurance for everyone over the age of 50. Older people don’t metabolize vitamins nearly as well as younger people. So, they have to take higher potencies of vitamins to get the same effect.”

Zinc deficiency, common in 95% of older people can lead to a decrease in appetite. Zinc deficiency can cause or worsen arthritis, depression, macular degeneration, and poor immune function. 40% of people 51 and older don’t eat enough. 30 to 50 mg of zinc a day can spark the appetite.

B vitamins are essential to keeping our minds sharp as we age. Niacin has been shown to prevent and even reverse symptoms of senility. 100 mg a day works well as a preventative amount. People with low levels of B-12 and folic acid also test low in cognitive function. Dementia and confusion have been shown to improve with B-12 injections and folic acid supplementation.

A Harvard study of 87,000 nurses found that incidents of major heart disease (the #1 cause of death in women) was reduced by 41% in women taking 100 to 250 IU’s of vitamin E a day for two years or more. They also showed a 29% lower stroke risk and a 13% lower overall mortality rate than women not supplementing vitamin E.

Antioxidants block free radical damage. They have an extra electron in their molecular structure to give up without becoming unbalanced. We produce fewer and fewer antioxidant enzymes in our bodies as we age, so if we want to stay young looking longer, we want to increase our intake of antioxidants in our foods and supplements. The best known antioxidants are vitamin C, E, betacarotene. These are helped by zinc, selenium, folic acid, B-6, manganese, and magnesium. Other powerful antioxidants include SOD, CoQ10, pycnogenol, quercetin, grape seed extract and NAC. It’s a good idea to use a variety, because they work in different parts of the body. For example: Vitamin C neutralizes free radicals in watery tissues and pycnogenol works more in the connective tissues. Polyphenols and bioflavonoids are found in many herbs, spices, fruits and vegetables and also have powerful antioxidant properties. Eat plenty of fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains, raw nuts and seeds. Restrict iron. Unless you are a child, an adolescent or a woman of child-bearing age, chances are you don’t need extra iron. Excess iron in the body, especially past middle age, is much more apt to make you sick and old than keep you young and energetic. Iron turbocharges free radicals, making them more active and destructive. Iron converts harmless cholesterol into the type that damages arteries and the heart. If you have high cholesterol, too much iron is especially dangerous. In a 1992 Finnish study, men with high iron levels were twice as likely to suffer heart attacks as men with low iron levels. To minimize free radical activity, stay away from extra iron – cut down on animal products and iron-fortified cereals.

Sam Rose, CN MS is a licensed and certified nutritionist and owner of Rose Nutrition Center in West Los Angeles. He can be reached at sam@rosenutrition.com or 310-473-8835.

RoseNutrition.com

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A Show Or Movie That Uses Real Actors Or Animals The Importance of a Business Plan For Film Projects – 7 Key Elements You Need to Get the Money

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The Importance of a Business Plan For Film Projects – 7 Key Elements You Need to Get the Money

A business plan is a tool with three basic purposes: communication, management and planning.

As a communication tool, it is used to attract investment capital, secure credit, persuade workers to be hired, and help attract strategic business partners. Developing a comprehensive business plan shows whether or not a business has the potential to make a profit. It requires a realistic look at almost every stage of your film project, in particular the distribution and subsequent revenue streams needed to recoup your investment. Moreover, it shows that you have solved all the problems of your project.

As a management tool, the business plan helps you track, monitor and evaluate your progress. The business plan is a living document that you will modify as you progress in your project. By using your business plan to set timelines and milestones, you can assess your progress and compare your projections to actual achievements.

As a planning tool, the business plan guides you through the various stages of your business. A thoughtful plan will help identify obstacles and obstacles in order to avoid them and establish alternatives.

But even more importantly, in a film project, the business plan serves another major purpose; you need to attract investors to finance your project. No one will invest in your project unless they can see how it will get paid and more importantly, make a profit.

“Anyone looking for financing for anything should have a business plan, period,” says talent manager Glenn Rigberg of the Beverly Hills firm of Rigberg, Roberts, Rugalo. “An Independent Film Business Plan [without money and a hard offer to go with it] will not bind the actors. But a solid, compelling plan can give a filmmaker a certain degree of credibility in the fundraising arena. That’s where it matters.”

What should be included in a movie business plan? Your business plan should always be simple and straightforward. Don’t waste too much time developing a 40-page document that no one will read. Keep it to 10 to 15 pages maximum. Generally, each plan includes the following;

* Executive Summary – a cover sheet that lists producer, director and talent credits and outlines the budget, start date and other key information in short, bite-sized paragraphs.

* A summary- A short version of the story followed by a “merits of investment” section, which breaks down all the positive elements of the project, but does not include the ending (you want them to read the script). These elements could be established talent, distribution guarantees, or the large potential audience for the film.

* Background- A brief overview to educate your reader about the industry and the opportunities within the industry. You can also describe who your potential customers are and you can mention some movies that are similar to your project.

* Operations- Description of how your internal operation will be structured from top to bottom to produce the project. Show what support services, casting, equipment, facilities, locations, legal advisory services, subtitling, etc. will be required to successfully execute the project. Document any major capital requirements needed to carry out your project. Describe funding sources and terms. Indicate what funding has been received and how much is still required.

* Marketing- Describe your company’s approach to go after the market to distribute your film and generate revenue. Summarize your distribution channels and strategy.

* Financial Forecasts – Provide an analysis of how much the film will cost to produce which addresses the total funds required, the source of the funds and the state to be financed. Include a budget summary with projected above- and below-the-line costs. List your sales forecasts and briefly describe how you derived them.

* Financial Statements- Prepare a cash flow statement showing the inflows and outflows of cash from month to month during the first year. Prepare a balance sheet that reflects the project’s assets and liabilities. Prepare an income statement showing the project’s income, expenses, and profitability.

In these times of recession, money is hard to come by. It’s no longer enough to present a killer script and a great pitch. In this new independent film economy, people who still have money want to see payback projections, marketing plans, internal rates of return, and multiple revenue streams. A properly prepared and informative business plan will help you a lot to get financing for your project. It can also be a valuable tool in ensuring the timely and efficient completion of your film.

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A List Of Effect On How Climate Change Affects Animals Growing Organic Strawberries

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Growing Organic Strawberries

Strawberry Fields Forever

Growing organic strawberries is my single most favorite food to grow in our garden. We have 300 new feet of growing strawberries coming into their second year this year, which means we’ll pack a freezer out with strawberries!

Growing strawberries commercially began in the 1700’s when a French farmer crossed a North American strawberry with a French strawberry and came up with the strawberries we’re now familiar with.

Strawberries are a member of the rose [rosacea] family.

The “straw” in strawberries came, it is conjectured, from using straw to mulch the growing berries early on.

Main Types of Strawberries Available

There are many strawberry varieties available, but their are three major categories.

The most common varieties are “June-bearing” strawberries, a bit of a misnomer in our Northern climate zone as we generally get the bulk of our berries in the first week of July. However, it mainly means that the berries have about a 2 week picking window.

The second major category is the “Ever-bearing” strawberries. These plants produce smaller crops in the spring and fall. My experience with ever-bearing berries is that the flavor is not as good as the June-bearing varieties.

New to the scene are what are called the “Day-neutral” varieties. These will produce a small but steady supply of berries throughout your growing season, I am told by our plant supplier, Nourse Farms. I don’t have any feedback yet from anyone who’s grown these, but if you have an opinion, please comment at the bottom of this post, I’d love to hear your opinion.

The June-bearing berries will still give you the most berries in a season, but the season is 2 to 3 weeks, so you have to learn how to preserve strawberries so you can have them through the winter. We’ll cover that in the “Storing & Preserving Strawberries” section below.

When to Plant Strawberries

Strawberries are a very hardy plant. We live in the north and planted our berries in April last year, considerably before the last frost and had great results.

If you live in a Southerly climate zone, you can plant your strawberry plants in the fall.

Strawberries are an annual plant; you won’t get many berries the first season, and some commercial experts say to pluck off the flowers the first year so the plants can get stronger.

If you plan to plant strawberries this year, you should order no later than the end of March (and that might be pushing the availability of some varieties).

If you get a late frost forecast after your berries bloom, protect the blossoms with row covers if possible, or run an overhead sprinkler to ice-over your blossoms…this will protect your berry crop.

I purchased our strawberries from Nourse Farms and was pleased with their service. Just Google them and they’ll come right up at the top of that search query. I was able to order strawberry plants in January and have them shipped at the end of March.

Where to Plant Strawberries

Choose an area of your garden that receives, at the very least, 6 hours of sunlight daily.

In Northern climate zones, 8 to 10 hours of sunlight is preferable as the nights are cooler. Our berries here in NE Washington State get 10+ daily, which is ideal.

In Southern climate zones, some afternoon shade is good so the berries don’t get cooked.

Ever-bearing strawberries are more suited to Northern climate zones, although some of the newer varieties being developed may overcome this obstacle.

Check with your berry plant supplier for the best varieties available for your area. You might try half a dozen varieties to find out which one you like best if you have the space to do so.

Don’t plant strawberries near the root zones of trees – generally the area where the branches of the tree extend to.

As do many garden crops, strawberries like well-drained sandy loam soil with lots of organic materials mixed in.

While it’s not a problem in most areas, strawberry plants are susceptible to more diseases if the soil is salty.

Strawberry plants are highly sensitive to salt. Too much salt in your soil can cause “leaf scorch,” reduce fruit yields (sometimes severely), and even kill your plants.

Preparing the Ground to Plant Strawberries

Strawberries will grow decently in soils with a pH level range of 5.0 to 7.0, but they thrive best toward the middle of this range.

Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sulfur, iron, manganese, boron, zinc, copper; almost all of these can be provided by supplementing the rows with several inches of compost or composted manure, mixed to a depth of 10 to 12 inches, before planting.

Choose an area that is grub free and weed free; if strawberries have been in the area in the past 3 years, avoid the area as it may still contain soil-borne pathogens from the previous plants.

Don’t choose an area that has been planted with grass or pasture recently; they tend to harbor lots of grubs and/or weeds.

Also avoid areas where tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, or eggplant have been planted as well; these plants may have infected the soil with Verticillium Wilt, which many strawberries are susceptible to.

Strawberries are heavy potassium users; supplement additional compost or composted manure to increase your soil’s potassium levels.

As mentioned before, your soil should drain well – but not too well. If your soil drains too quickly, organic matter (such as compost) can slow down the release of moisture. If it drains too slowly, compost can also help it to drain faster.

Choosing the Best Varieties for Your Area

You’ll want to make sure you grow strawberries suited to your area. A small patch of 30 square feet (3′ x 10′), if properly maintained, can produce 10 to 15 pounds per year for 3 to 5 years.

Check with your county extension to learn what diseases are prevalent in your area. Choose varieties that are resistant to those diseases.

Most reputable suppliers of strawberry plants should be able to help you choose the right variety for your climate zone.

Indoor/container Strawberries

The only reason for planting strawberries indoors is to grow containerized strawberries. Otherwise, they are a cold-hardy plant and can be planted outdoors any time in the early spring once the ground is thawed.

If you want to plant strawberries in containers, it’s best to use a 10 to 12 inch deep container as strawberry roots like to go deep, and at least 6″ diameter for 1 plant.

Use a good potting soil mix in your containers, and make sure there’s plenty of drain-holes in the bottom of the container as well.

When you’re planting a strawberry plant, you want to make sure the roots are pointing straight down into the soil and that the soil level is at the collar of the plant (where the green starts).

Planting Strawberries from Seed

In the past few years, some gardeners have started planting strawberries from seed, especially the “Alpine” strawberry. While I’ve not personally tried this yet, it is intriguing.

When you get the seeds, freeze them for a couple weeks. Freezing emulates winter and prepares your seeds for spring.

You can plant your seeds in soil blocks or trays about a ½ an inch deep.

Keep the soil moist and in direct light – preferably sunlight. They’ll germinate in about 2 to 3 weeks.

Once they’ve developed at least 3 true leaves, you can plant them outdoors.

Transplanting Strawberry Seedlings Outdoors

Strawberries are hardy plants, but if temps are still dropping to 20°F or below, hold off transplanting your seedlings or planting stock that you’ve ordered.

It’s best not to have your plants shipped in, though, until your local weather is past the danger of sub-20°F weather.

Last year we marked out 9 rows – about 35 feet in length – prepped the soil, and ordered our berry plants.

When we received our 500 plants last spring (300 for us, and 200 for our dear Ukrainian neighbors, Viktor and Angelina), we had to wait 3 days to plant.

On planting day, we put our 300 plants in water with some gelatinous goo provided by Nourse Farms (to keep the roots moist longer).

When we planted our plants, we trimmed the roots to about 4 or 5 inches in length, stuck our trowel into the soil as deep as it would go (about 6 inches), and moved it back and forth to create a hole in the soil, then inserted the roots.

We then pulled out the trowel and packed the soil in around the roots up to the plant collar (where the roots and plant meet).

We spaced the plants about 12 inches apart (the recommended distance is 12 to 18 inches, but as Ilove strawberries, I wanted as many as we could squeeze into each row. We spaced our rows 42 inches apart so I could rototill between the rows without destroying the plants.

Successfully Growing Strawberries

With June-bearing strawberries, the first year you plant them, the best practice is to remove flowers a couple time per week to allow the plant to gain strength without having to compete with the berries.

Honestly, this was painful to do…I wanted strawberries badly. However, I did as I was advised and the plants became super-vigorous.

It is advisable if, after your plants have flowered, if a late frost is predicted, to either use overhead watering or row covers to protect your berry crop.+

We had lots and lots of runners later in the summer. Because some plants had died (very normal), we had gaps in the rows. The runners filled in these spots and more. By fall we had probably a plant every 6 inches.

This process of using runners to fill in the gaps is called “renovating” your strawberry patch. You can do it annually to replace weak plants, and some friends who’ve grown more strawberries than we have dig these runners up and plant new rows with them.

In the fall, I set my lawnmower on the highest setting and mowed the berry plants. This wasn’t easy to do either emotionally, but I am told it will pay off this year. We’ll keep you posted on how all this turns out.

Mulching & Weeding

During the spring and summer, we mulch between the rows of growing strawberries to keep the soil moist and to keep the weeds under control.

We go right up to the plants with the mulch because the straw keeps the berries from contacting the soil, preventing them from rotting and keeping them cleaner.

Because strawberries don’t do well with competing weeds, you’ll need to make sure to keep your berries as weed-free as possible. Be careful not to damage the strawberry plant roots.

We use a clean barley straw for mulch that we purchase in the late summer and early fall.

Mulching in the late fall before the weather gets below 15°F is recommended to protect the crowns of the plants. 6 inches of straw should be satisfactory.

Snow is also a good mulch if you can count on it, but if not, use straw.

Watering Strawberries

In our area, we often have a wet June, so we don’t need to water our strawberries much at all, but on a dryer year and after June we give them about an inch of water every 3 to 5 days.

If you’re using overhead watering, it’s best to water in the early morning so as to avoid having the plants stay wet too long.

Companion Planting and Rotation Considerations

Strawberries do well with onions, beans, thyme, borage, sage, and marigolds.

Borage strengthens resistance to insects and disease, and Thyme, planted as a border around a strawberry patch, is reputed to keep away bad worms.

Beans enrich garden soil by “fixing” nitrogen into it from the air, improving conditions for any crop following them.

Onions are reputed to help strawberries ward of disease.

Sage is said to do the same, plus it helps the growing strawberries to resist insects.

Marigold deter root nematodes from strawberries, plus make your strawberry patch even more beautiful.

Bad companions for strawberries are anything in the Cabbage family; brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and kohlrabi included.

The worst companions for strawberries are strawberries. You should plow your strawberries under every 5 years or less and replace them with something else in order to rid the soil of pathogens that are harmful to strawberries.

Harvesting Strawberries

It’s pretty easy to know when a strawberry is ready to pick and eat as they’re bright red in color and sweet to the taste.

June-bearing berries will ripen in June or July for the most part, while Ever-bearing berries ripen in June, then usually again in September, and day-neutral varieties ripen from June until frost.

Ripe strawberries are very soft, so pick them with care. Watch for rot and pitch the berries into the aisle behind where you’re picking or to your chickens if you have them. This prevents the rot from spreading to good berries.

You can pick your berries with stems on or remove the stems as you pick. Leaving the stems on allows them to keep a bit longer, while picking them without stems is ideal if you’re going to eat them immediately, freeze them, or make jam within a day or two.

Harvest every 2 to 3 days during the height of the harvest.

Strawberry Storage

If you want to keep your strawberries for fresh eating, refrigerate them immediately after picking. Don’t wash them until you’re ready to eat them though.

Even at that, though, strawberries, depending on the variety, will keep only for 2 to 6 days in your fridge.

Our favorite long term preservation of strawberries is freezing.

We wash the berries, then let them drain until relatively dry, spread them on jelly roll pans, and freeze them.

Then we remove them from the pans and put them in zip lock-style bags for later usage in strawberry smoothies or ice cream.

Our second favorite long-term storage method for strawberries is freezer jam. You can also make cooked jam, but we much prefer freezer jam as it retains the fresh flavor of the berries. Mmmm!

We use the jam for toast, sandwiches, ice cream topping, on flake cereals, and even as a sweetener/flavor enhancer for those pithy strawberries from somewhere down South on Easter Sunday.

Preventative and Natural Solutions to Common Pests

The Strawberry Root Weevil is a small, ¼ inch long weevil whose larvae are also ¼ inch long, fat, legless, and white with brownish heads.

The weevils themselves cause mainly cosmetic damage until mid-summer when they lay their eggs in the soil around the plants.

The eggs hatch the larvae which feed on the roots and crowns of the berry plants, stunting them, decreasing subsequent crop yields, and potentially killing your plants.

To assess the seriousness of your infestation, once you see leaf damage, grab a flashlight after dark and look through your patch.

At the first sign of leaf damage, an after-dark stroll through the garden with flashlight in hand will help gauge the extent of the invasion.

The best organic solution may be Diatomaceous Earth. Food grade diatomaceous earth, which is composed of powdered fossilized algae, possesses razor sharp edges which are innocuous to most animals but fatal to insects.

When insects such as slugs, thrips, fly maggots, aphids, grubs, caterpillars, or mites ingest diatomaceous earth, it punctures their guts and they die from dehydration.

You do have to keep your powder dry with DE, though. Once it rains or you irrigate, you’ll have to re-apply it on and around your plants.

Organic permethrins are also effective against weevils and their larvae.

Rotate your berries out of the area ASAP to regain control from weevils.

The Tarnished Plant Bug (lygus lineolaris, for those of you who just need to know the Latin name), are brown to gray oval, winged bugs.

The adults are about ¼ inch long, and their nymphs are about the same size and shape, but are greenish and wingless.

These pests feed on the flower buds and cause enlarged brown seeds and strawberries that we call “monkey-faces” or “nubbins.”

To prevent an infestation of these bugs, mow your plants in the fall and rid the plants of weeds so the bugs don’t have any place to overwinter near your plants.

The only time you need to check for these bugs is during bloom. Take a white paper plate or similar, hold it under a plant, and lightly rap the plant with your hand. If you have an infestation, you’ll see one or more of them drop onto the plate.

Permethrins are the best organic way to rid your plants of this pest, but you don’t want to kill good insects either, so use this only before the bloom.

Strawberry Sap Beetles prefer to eat over-ripe strawberries. These are also known as “picnic” beetles.

Strawberry sap beetles are about ¼ inch long and black with 4 yellow-orange spots on their backs.

The easiest way to prevent an infestation of this beetle is to not allow your berries to get over-ripe.

Slugs are a significant pest in strawberry patches. They range from ¼ inch long to 2 inches long or more, depending on your region.

You’ll know you have slugs if you see small holes in your berries and slime trails on the ground, berries, and leaves of your plants.

Slugs almost always eat your berries during the nighttime or on cloudy/rainy days.

One way to control slugs is to water deeply but less frequently as slugs thrive in moist conditions.

While I haven’t tried this, I’ve been told that if you bury pans to soil level and put beer in them, the slugs are attracted to the beer and will drown in it.

Another method, mentioned above, is to powder the area with DE (diatomaceous earth). You just have to make sure to keep it dry or it doesn’t work, or replace it once it gets wet.

Spittle Bugs, or spit bugs, are young froghoppers. It’s easy to spot these disgusting little bugs because they hide in a huge wad of spit.

Spit bugs feed on the stems of strawberries and other plants by piercing them and sucking out the juice. They can temporarily stunt your plants, although the damage is usually not permanent.

The best method of ridding your plants of these pests is to crush them as the spittle protects them from most insecticides.

Strawberry Diseases

Winter injury is caused by alternating warm and cold spells during the winter months. Mulching with straw or chopped leaves will typically allay this type of damage.

Slime mold fungi may grow on strawberry plants during warm, wet weather, particularly in warmer climates in the spring and fall.

The jelly-like slime mold is usually tannish or whitish and comes out of the soil and onto your berry plants, where it forms an assortment of odd-shaped and colored crusty, spore-covered formations.

While slime mold doesn’t kill plants, it can smother individual leaves or fruits and is gross to look at. They disappear once the warm, moist weather leaves.

Powdery mildew appears on leaves as white patches on the lower leaf surfaces or on the flowers and fruit.

Leaf infection doesn’t seem to affect production, but flower and fruit infection does.

Too much moisture promotes this mildew, so don’t water late in the day.

Avoid too much nitrogen in the soil, and plant resistant varieties.

You can also make an organic fungicide spray using bicarbonate of soda (baking soda). In a gallon of water add a couple drops of organic olive oil, a couple drops of environmentally-friendly liquid soap, and 3 tablespoons of baking soda. Spray it on your strawberry plants to effectively control fungal diseases.

Leaf spots are a very common problem in strawberry plants. They include “leaf scorch” (red spot), “leaf spot,” “purple leaf spot,” and other similar diseases.

You’ll see these spots show up as blotches or lesions that may cover entire leaves.

The best cure is to plant resistant varieties in your patch. You can also “renovate” your patch with fresh runners to reduce the affect of this disease. Mowing your patch in the fall will also reduce the disease the following year.

Anthracnose is a hot, humid climate disease (we don’t have to worry much about that in our neck of the woods).

Tan or light brown circular spots at first appear on your berries, which then become darker and sunken. It occurs on both green and ripe fruit during hot, humid weather.

Planting resistant varieties and watering in the a.m. can help prevent this malady. Because it’s caused by splashing water, mulch has been noted to help reduce anthracnose by reducing splashing of infected water.

Red stele is a soil-borne fungus that attacks the roots of strawberry plants. You can see the roots turning a reddish color, and then the leaves change to red, yellow, or orange colors and the plants will become stunted.

Planting resistant varieties is the best preventative measure against this ailment. Also, planting in soil that drains well (or adding plenty of compost) will help prevent red stele as well.

Over-watering is also a cause of this disease, especially in soils that don’t drain well.

Verticillium Wilt often strikes the first year your berries are planted. It will show up in your leaves between the veins.

The older leaves will show browning and may die, while the younger leaves remain green but stunted.

It is often brought on by hot temperatures and dry spells.

Planting resistant varieties in areas where it has been a problem has been successful.

Black Root Rot is caused by water-logged, poorly draining soil, freezing, or nematodes, or a combination of any of these.

The symptoms are roots that turn dark and lose their feeder roots, causing the plant to lose its vigor.

Obviously, in the list above, avoiding poorly draining clayish soil would be a good start. Adding organic matter to the soil would also be effective.

Parasitic Nematodes are small, roundish worms that are very tiny – 1/64 inch to 1/16 inch long.

These worms burrow into plant roots and create “knots” in the roots. Symptoms include stunted plant growth, leaves that turn yellow, smaller crop yields, fewer runners, and loss of overall plant vigor.

Because they’re so small, it takes special equipment and trained specialists to diagnose this issue, so the best solution is to plant nematode free plants in nematode free soil.

The best way to do this for most gardeners is to rotate your plants to a new area of your garden.

Gray mold is a very common ailment that occurs on the surface of your berries. Very often it starts where a berry is in contact with the soil or other infected berries.

Mulching with straw is effective in preventing this mold as it keeps the berries from contacting the soil.

Removing any infected berries daily is a very effective way to keep gray mold under control in your garden. Keep your ripe berries picked also. Overripe berries rot quickly.

Leather rot causes a bland berry taste in strawberries when some berries contact dampish soil.

Some berries change colors with this rot, but some don’t. Because the flesh stays firm, it is called leather rot.

Watering early in the day helps prevent leather rot. Mulching is also effective in keeping the berries from contacting damp soil.

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All Of The Following Are Animal Defenses Against Parasites Except Green Tea Extract and Immune Health

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Green Tea Extract and Immune Health

Green tea helps boost the immune system, which is your body’s first line of defense against disease and infection! The immune system consists of white blood cells or leukocytes. The main organs in the immune system are the bone marrow, spleen, thymus and lymph nodes. Incredibly, your bone marrow produces 1 billion white blood cells every day!

The immune system

There are different types of leukocytes such as neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages. These patrol the body, protecting it from germs and other foreign objects. Each of these targets specific pathogens such as parasites, bacteria, fungi, allergies, pathogens, viruses, tumor cells, and other foreign bodies. Leukocytes are found throughout the body and in the bloodstream. These natural sentinels of the body have a built-in memory system that helps the body become immune to a second attack. Cellular life is very intriguing! There are about 200 types of cells in your body and your body is in a continuous process of replacing old cells with new ones. Every second there are about 50 million cells in your body that die and are replaced by new ones. This process is controlled so that your body has the correct number of cells of each type at any given time. Sometimes cells commit suicide, which is called apostosis. Apostosis is the body’s way of destroying cells that are not normal. Abnormal multiplication of cells can be caused by free radical activity and can lead to cancer. It is interesting to note that all cells in your body recognize each other. Cells belonging to one organ or tissue also recognize each other and this keeps cells from the same organ or tissue together. Leukocytes recognize cells that are abnormal or foreign. Leukocytes work quickly to prevent them from entering your system. This is basically how the immune system works. It is therefore very important that we take proactive measures to support the function of our immune system.

Immune health and nutrition

Immune health works at the cellular level where basic health begins. Cellular function is supported by proper nutrition. The relationship between diet and immune health is explained by Dr. George L. Blackburn, MD, Ph.D., associate director, Department of Nutrition at Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts. He says, “Nutrition plays an important role in maintaining immune function. A deficiency in one or more essential nutrients can prevent the immune system from functioning at its peak.” David Katz, MD, MPH, director of the Yale Prevention Research Center in New Haven, Connecticut, confirms this: “There is no question that the immune system is fundamentally influenced by overall health – and a balanced diet is key. Not only are essential nutrients crucial for the production and maintenance of important germ-fighting cells in the immune system, but a balanced diet also has a strong effect on vascular function and the immune system is dependent on blood flow, which is the route by which infection-fighting cells travel throughout the body to where they are needed.” Doctors and nutritionists recommend that you eat plenty of fruits and vegetables, avoid saturated fats and red meat, and exercise regularly to support immune health.

Green tea and immune health

Because immunity is fought at the cellular level, antioxidants play a key role. Consuming foods rich in antioxidants helps your body control free radical activity. Dark-colored fruits and vegetables usually have the highest antioxidant value. Drinking it can help boost your immune system significantly. It is rich in antioxidants, especially epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). In vitro and animal studies show that it can significantly support immune system health. These studies indicate that it may be beneficial for immune system health in many ways:

It exhibits antiviral, antifungal and antibacterial properties.

In vitro studies suggest that EGCG prevents the adenovirus from replicating itself. This virus is one of many viruses responsible for causing the common cold according to studies conducted at the University of Sherbrooke in Canada and also at the University of Florida. The latest study indicated that drinkers had an improved ability to fight off colds and flu due to an increase in a specific type of immune cells known as interferon gamma T cells. The study showed that drinkers had a 28% increase in interferon-gamma T cells with a 26% increase in antigen secretion, in contrast to those who did not consume green tea. 1,2 EGCG also helps to inhibit the flu virus from replicating and also exhibits antifungal properties.(3-4)

It helps protect the liver

It protects the liver by boosting the immune system due to the action of powerful antioxidants, reducing damage from toxins caused by excessive alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. The result of such studies indicates that its nutritional supplement may help reduce early toxin-induced liver damage by neutralizing oxidative stress.(5-6)

It helps promote immune cell production.

Tea polysaccharides (TPS), one of the main components, stimulate the production of cytokines in the bone marrow. Cytokines are used in cellular communication and are critical to the body’s immune response to pathogens.(7) A balanced diet along with plenty of fruits and vegetables, and exercise will support good health. With countless studies strongly pointing to its beneficial effects, it only makes sense to protect immune system health through green tea supplementation. Instead of reaching for coffee, replace drinking coffee with cups of green tea. Six cups of green tea a day is said to boost your immunity 5 times faster than regular coffee. You can brew fresh cups of Green Tea every day, but supplements like Green Tea Plus are convenient and packed with antioxidants. Green Tea Plus contains 6 times the antioxidant power of a freshly brewed cup of green tea.

References:

  1. Inhibition of adenovirus infection and adenaine by green tea catechins, Antiviral Res. Apr 2003;58(2):167-73. PMID: 12742577
  2. Specific formulation of Camellia sinensis prevents cold and flu symptoms and improves T-cell function: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 26, no. 5, 445-452 (2007), American College of Nutrition
  3. Antiviral effect of catechins in green tea on the flu virus, Antiviral Res. Nov 2005;68(2):66-74. Epub 2005 Aug 9. PMID: 16137775
  4. Multiple effects of green tea catechin on the antifungal activity of antifungal drugs against Candida albicans.J Antimicrob Chemother. February 2004;53(2):225-9. Epub 2003 Dec 19. PMID: 14688042
  5. Green tea extract protects against early alcohol-induced liver injury in rats, Biol Chem. 2002 March-April;383(3-4):663-70. PMID: 12033455
  6. Imai K, Nakachi K. Cross-sectional study of the effects of green tea drinking on cardiovascular disease and liver disease. BMJ. March 18, 1995; 310 (6981): 693-6.
  7. Epigallocatechin gallate modulates cytokine production by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide or muramyl dipeptide, or infected with Legionella pneumophila, Experimental Biology and Medicine 230:645-651 (2005). Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine

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A Large Region On Earth With Particular Plant And Animal Yellow Belly Turtles for Pets

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Yellow Belly Turtles for Pets

Keeping yellow-bellied turtles as pets is a walk on the wild side, whether they are captive-bred or wild-caught. When considering any animal that comes from the wild or a wild catch, be sure to check the laws in your specific area for your specific species. Laws are different for a number of reasons, including controlling the spread of disease, protecting native species that may be affected by crossbreeding from an escaped pet, or maintaining appropriate import/export restrictions. Most species are listed as LC or Least Concern, but it’s fair to say that the more research you do before you get your pet, the safer and happier your pet will be.

Being semi-aquatic means you will need to provide water and soil for a new turtle pet. A good rule of thumb is to choose or build an enclosure that is three times the width and six times the length of the pet’s shell. If there will be more than one pet per room, larger accommodations will be required. If the pets are full-grown adults, the possibility of mating can easily occur and may go unnoticed until the eggs or hatchlings appear on the scene. They will need a UV-B light to wash in order to dry completely sometimes, natural sun is best but not always available.

In terms of turtles, their lifespan is relatively short, being only about 15-25 years. However, in pet terms, this means that a turtle pet is a long-term liability, not a short-term fad. A well-cared-for pet turtle can outlive its owner, so it’s important to take care of them along with other possessions.

Feeding is an easy process as yellow-bellied turtles are omnivorous and eat plant or animal matter as well as carrion in the wild if no other food source is available. Young turtles need more protein for growth and will enjoy crickets, mealworms, earthworms or other purchased reptile/turtle food. Mature turtles tend to enjoy more plant foods such as berries, fruits, vegetables, and canned turtle food which is generally diced fruits and vegetables. If you feed fruits and vegetables, be careful to remove uneaten food to avoid contaminating the water supply.

Most turtles with a single or double plastron (lower shell) are generally shy in nature and prefer to hide rather than face danger. This does not preclude them from an occasional bite if pushed or startled, but it should be a bite of little consequence unlike the bite of their aggressive cousins, the snappers. Yellow-bellied turtles can be lifelong companions and should be treated with that respect.

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