A Consumer That Eats Both Plants And Animals Is Called GMO Foods May Contain Harmful Substances

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GMO Foods May Contain Harmful Substances

The food industry, represented by the FDA, USDA and several large corporations, claims that genetically modified (GMO) foods are safe. Furthermore, they cite several additional factors that support the need for genetic engineering in agricultural production. First among them is increased production from crops that resist drought, disease and pests. They also claim that GMO crops require less use of pesticides and this benefits the environment and consumers. Finally, they claim to produce better foods that are richer in certain nutrients or lack certain natural toxins, such as mold.

All these claims are further supported by the World Health Organization, the National Academy of Sciences and the American Medical Association, who declare that GMO foods are as safe as any other food. Interestingly, many countries have banned the growing of GMO crops and others, at least, require labeling of GMO foods. It is clear that entire regions of the world are concerned about the potential for toxicity in food supplied by GMO foods.

One of the genetic modifications of corn, soybeans, and sugar beets has been to make them “Roundup Ready.” This means that these crops have been engineered to resist the effects of glyphosate, the main ingredient in the weed killer Roundup. Glyphosate blocks the function of enzymes that help plants absorb nutrients. Then the plant quickly dies of starvation. Farmers spray the chemical liberally on their fields to eradicate weeds. Unfortunately, these food plants absorb glyphosate along with weeds. They do not die as a result because of the genetic modification designed to resist that process.

This glyphosate residue then enters the food supply, both for direct human consumption in packaged foods and through animals, which are raised on GMO corn and soybeans. High levels of glyphosate have been found in soybean and corn products. The problem is that glyphosate performs the same function in the human body as it does in plants. That is, glyphosate disrupts the enzymes that help us absorb nutrients, which can lead to a number of diseases. If you’ve eaten any packaged food recently, you’ve most likely consumed glyphosate.

Another genetic modification involves resistance to pests such as worms. In this case, the modified corn and pumpkin products produce the same toxin that is produced by a bacterium found naturally in the soil. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is commonly used as a biological pesticide, sprayed on crops to destroy invasive pests. When a pest attacks a GMO crop, the plant itself blocks the attack after the pest ingests the Bt toxin. Unfortunately, this toxin is also found in foods that make it to the shelf in regular packages. From there, it enters the human body and causes damage to cells.

The list of genetic modifications continues to grow, and the long-term effect of this will only be known for sure after years of research. In the meantime, millions of people may be harmed by consuming these products, believing them to be safe. Already, evidence is mounting to suggest that these agents are toxic to humans, and many countries, in addition to the US, are beginning to respond. Day by day, it’s up to you to choose a food supply you know you can rely on versus one that involves you in a potentially dangerous experiment to increase your food supply.

Avoiding packaged food altogether would be a good place to start. If you can’t resist, then take a closer look at the label. Many manufacturers are beginning to identify “non-GMO” ingredients on their labels. In addition to looking for “non-GMO” labels, some ingredients are clear indicators of the presence of GMO elements. These include high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), aspartame, MSG, trans fats, food coloring, sulfur dioxide, and potassium bromate. The list of foods known to be genetically modified includes corn, soybeans, alfalfa, canola, cotton, papaya, sugar beets, zucchini, summer squash, wheat, rice and flax.

Choose products labeled 100% Organic, certified by the USDA. Being certified organic means that the crop is grown without the use of harmful chemicals and GMOs are not on the USDA approved list. Support your local farmers market, but be sure to ask questions about their farming practices. Not all local farmers are non-GMO or follow organic practices. Finally, grow your own vegetables in the backyard. A small space can produce a healthy supply of nutrients that you know are safe.

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A Connection Between An Animal Cell Is Known As A Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD): What’s Really Going On In Your Brain

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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD): What’s Really Going On In Your Brain

Imagine being powerless over incessant, irrational thoughts and behaviors that seem completely outside of one’s sphere of control. Whether the lack of control centers around someone who washes their hands fifty or more times a day to avoid contamination, or someone who can’t sleep no matter how hard they try because they have to keep re-checking their hair to make sure it’s are locked. It can also be a person who is essentially imprisoned in their room because they cannot leave unless everything is in the exact order or place it is supposed to be.

These are just a few of the many examples of adversity faced by someone with obsessive-compulsive disorder, or more commonly known as OCD. The manifestations of this disorder are easily recognizable as inappropriate and quite strange, however, no one really knows why a person is acting in this way. If society had a more complete understanding, it could help people who are close to people with OCD cope, and it would also help remove the shame that a person with this disorder feels because of the thoughts, their unconventional urges and behaviors.

To treat OCD biologically, it all has to start with the brain. The brain itself is an organ of incredible complexity. It consists of many nerve networks intended to transmit chemical messages from different parts of the body to specific areas of the brain to be processed, and then leave with another nerve impulse sent through the postsynaptic neuron to produce thoughts, feelings, and behavior. . This process is not as simple as it sounds since each neuron, or brain cell, is not connected to each other; there is a junction known as a synapse between each of the neuron cells. Therefore, neurons must send messages using neurotransmitters that leave the presynaptic neuron and accumulate in the postsynaptic neuron by joining their nerve processes called dendrites. Once there are enough of these neurotransmitters, the electrical charge across the cell is large enough to initiate an action potential, or send a large charge into the cell body. The action potential then passes through the cell body and into the axon, which is the nerve process that carries the impulse to the terminal side of the neuron, and the whole process begins again with each neuron until it reaches its final destination. It’s very similar to how a light switch works. Nerve impulses, or electrical currents of light, are pushed to different areas of the body, while the light switch distributes its light energy among different bulbs within the vicinity.

All of this becomes vitally important when discussing the Cortico-Striato-Thalamo-Cortical or CSTC circuits. Parts of this system implicated in OCD research are the orbital frontal cortex, striatum, and thalamus. Although there are two separate branches, OCD is primarily concerned with the second branch called the cortico-striato-thalamic branch. Like a fast-paced highway, the striatum can either propagate nerve impulses with a green light that keeps traffic flowing, causing the thalamus to fire an action potential, or it can inhibit the production of an action potential when the traffic signal becomes red to stop traffic. The tasks of this system include filtering external inputs, providing refined output, and mediating stereotypical rule-based processes without requiring conscious resource allocation.

Putting this into context in a person with OCD, the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit is overfunctioning. In some cases disturbed thoughts, concerns or doubts, which originate in the orbital frontal cortex, in normal brain functioning travel to the striatum; since there, these extraneous thoughts can be stopped through the action of the caudate nucleus. However, in the case of a brain with obsessive-compulsive disorder, this part of the striatum is hypothesized to be deficient. Thus, these unnecessary thoughts turn into obsessions, as the line of thought continues and overwhelms the system like a traffic signal always stuck on green. In an attempt to extinguish the anxiety and fear that is caused, the person acts on the urges by performing the action that they perceive as avoiding a particular trigger. There are as many avoidance behaviors as there are people and they are all unique to the person and can change due to life circumstances at any time.

Another theory on the effect of children who have certain genetic markers, such as high levels of D8/17 antibodies, and at some point have come down with a case of streptococcal infection. When their bodies try to fight the disease in an autoimmune response, a case of molecular mimicry occurs. In this phenomenon, antistreptococcal antibodies cross-react with basal ganglia proteins, causing an inflammatory response to [produce] symptoms of Sydenham’s chorea. Antibodies are essentially unable to distinguish between brain and streptococcal cells. This course of the disease can eventually cause some children to become obsessive-compulsive based on the location of inflammation and brain cell damage. The US National Institute of Mental Health has termed this “Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections” respectively (PANDAS).

Duke University researchers using mice may have unraveled yet another piece of the overall puzzle. Using genetically modified mice, they eliminated a specific gene known as SAPAP3 which codes for a particular protein. Without this protein, the mice began to exhibit OCD-like behavior. They were grooming and scratching themselves to the point where they were bald in some areas and had rubbed off their raw skin. Additionally, the researchers observed a certain type of energy that they claimed was a symptom of anxiety as can be seen in individuals with OCD. As they did with people with OCD, they gave rats SSRIs and saw improvement in their behaviors. To a large extent, researchers have been baffled by this disease because they have not been able to replicate it in any animal model. For this reason, this has made many within the medical community excited about the possibilities of solving the psychological phenomenon that afflicts people from all over the world in a similar way.

After discussing the possible theories attributed to the disorder, it is also important to talk about the science behind the treatment of the disorder. The most common treatment from a biological point of view is the prescription of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). As the name implies, this line of medications keeps serotonin within the synaptic cleft instead of being reabsorbed back into the neuron from which it is released. Thus, serotonin molecules have a greater probability of joining the dendrite of another neuron and initiating an action potential. This is important because “serotonin is known to be one of the chemical messengers in the pathway between the basal ganglia and the frontal cortex.” Increasing nerve impulses throughout this part of the brain has been clinically shown to moderate the effect of OCD in an individual. Common SSRIs that the FDA approves for the treatment of OCD are Prozac, Luvox, Zoloft, Paxil, and Anafranil.

All in all, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is a very complicated and difficult disorder to treat. When most people won’t think about something, people with OCD can spend hours thinking about it. OCD spans across a range of issues. Thought patterns can be about washing and cleanliness, hoarding, control, order and symmetry, scrupulousness and aggression. The behaviors exhibited by individuals with OCD are not only difficult for society to understand, but the disorder has baffled even professionals. Medical researchers are beginning to try to unlock the secrets of this disorder parts at a time. Then it follows that great breakthroughs are on the horizon, because now there are only medications and cognitive behavioral therapies that make progress up to a certain point, but even then there is always the risk of relapse.

Furthermore, OCD sufferers must go through the search just to find a medication or therapy concept that relieves a mere fraction of the pain and suffering imposed upon them along with the destruction it can bring to their lives, making them made research advances a daunting task for him. undertaken. However, as the old saying goes “knowledge is power;” meaning that the more people who open doors to discuss OCD without judgment and spend time researching it, the more likely society will continue to build on the knowledge it has found to bring a hopeful outlook to it the future of people everywhere who must contend with it. this terrible cruel disorder.

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A Condition Involving The Close Interaction Of Animals Living Together Dream Interpretation 101 – Understanding Animals in Dreams

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Dream Interpretation 101 – Understanding Animals in Dreams

Seeing animals in dreams is very common. From wild lions and tigers to pets, animals of all types, shapes and sizes can populate our dreams. As with other dream symbols, such as water or babies, recognizing how the symbol functions in our waking life can help make the connection with what it reflects in consciousness. Regardless of individual traits, animals primarily work on attention and memory. They tend to act in certain ways, eat a certain diet, and generally have the same routine from day to day. Until something new enters their lives, memory and current conditions will continue to dictate their activities. Therefore, animals in dreams represent habits or habitual thinking.

When I was a child, my family visited my grandparents every summer in Colorado. One of my favorite pastimes was hiking with my grandfather, whom we called “Poppa,” around his land in the mountains. On one of our hiking expeditions, I noticed a smaller path leading into the forest. I asked him what made that trail. He told me it was most likely deer, elk or cattle walking along that trail. He also told me that animals make paths and that they often travel. This story comes to mind whenever I have animals in my dreams, stimulating me to search for thoughts I’ve been having repeatedly.

Animals’ characters and traits can help determine the habits they reflect. Are animals strong or agile? Grotesque or curated? Familiar or mythological? Asking such questions can often clarify the picture of how an animal functions, crucial in dream interpretation. Moreover, watching the interaction with said animals can illuminate the cause-and-effect relationship between thoughts and intelligent life.

For example, many people have had nightmares of being chased by animals. The act of running away from anything in a dream signifies some kind of avoidance of something in waking life. This can portray attitudes of feeling powerless or feeling out of control. In this case, perhaps it is thoughts of worry, fear, or doubt that plague the mind, rendering the dreamer helpless.

This does not mean that all habits are harmful. Just as there are good habits involving diet, personal hygiene and finances, good mental habits can be beneficial. Ideally, people as developing thinkers and reasoners will increase their mental discipline to a point where the mind is fully present in all thought processes. Therefore, animal dreams can become a stimulus to seek greater mental mastery, transforming even the smallest acts of mental “auto-pilot” into awareness.

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A Complete List Of Extinct Species Of Plants And Animals List of Jungle Animals

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List of Jungle Animals

Jungles have constantly fascinated many people, especially young children. Jungle is home to several animals and the list of jungle animals is quite long.

List of jungle animals that are mammals

1. Baboon – There are many types of baboons. They vary in size. Some of them can grow up to forty-seven inches in height and can weigh up to ninety pounds. They eat grasses, roots and fruits. They also eat some meat such as rodents and small birds.

2. Bears – This mammal belongs to the family of animals called Ursidae. This animal can be found mainly in the countries located in the northern hemisphere. Some of their species include grizzly bear, panda, brown bear, polar bear and black bear. The polar bear is completely carnivorous. However, the panda is completely herbivorous.

3. Cheetah – This is the fastest mammal on earth. They can run at a speed of zero to sixty miles per hour. They can do it in seconds. It can reach up to four feet in length. This animal is usually found in Asian and African jungles. This animal is completely carnivorous. It eats only meat and hunts for food during the day.

4. Chimpanzee – This is an intelligent animal. They usually live in jungle grasslands. They usually eat plants. She also eats insects.

5. Deer – This animal lives in the jungles of North and South America. The male deer sheds its antlers every year. The largest type of deer is called Elk. This can be found in the jungles of North America.

6. Elephant – This is the largest jungle animal that lives on earth. There are two species, Asian elephants and African elephants. Asian elephants are slightly smaller than African elephants. They can weigh up to eleven thousand pounds.

List of jungle animals that are birds

1. Coraciiformes – This species of birds can be characterized by their pointed toes. Ninety percent of this species consists of fish sharks. The horn also belongs to this species.

2. Falconiformes – This type of bird is prominent because of its beak. It has a sharp beak. Her legs are very strong. He can also fly very high in the sky. There are two hundred and ninety species of this species. The smallest bird is the Falconet which lives in Thailand. The large falconiforms are eagles, vultures and hawks.

3. Galliformes – This type of bird is characterized by a thick and thick trunk. This bird feeds mainly on plants. There are two hundred and fifty species of this bird. Some of them are turkeys, voles and partridges.

List of jungle animals that are insects

1. Ants – These are insects that have a knot structure. They also have antennae. There are twelve thousand species of this animal that lives in the jungle. This can be found not only in jungles, but also in grasslands and wetlands.

2. Bees – This is a flying insect. This animal is known for producing honey. Facilitates pollination of flowers. There are nine families of bees.

3. Butterflies – This is the animal that fascinates many people. This animal has an interesting life cycle. It starts as a larva then becomes a caterpillar and then turns into a chrysalis and finally becomes a butterfly.

4. Spiders – This animal belongs to the arthropod family because of its eight legs. He has a fang and spits out poison. There are one hundred and nine species of spiders worldwide. The largest is the Goliath bird-eating spider.

List of jungle animals that are reptiles

1. Alligator – This is a reptile that you can find in some jungles, including China and America. It can reach a length of up to thirteen feet. It feeds on panthers, bears and deer.

2. Crocodile – This is the largest reptile that you can find in the jungles of Africa, Australia and America. They usually live in fresh water such as lakes and large rivers.

3. Lizards – This is a reptile that is commonly found in many places. This animal belongs to the family called Squamate. The Komodo dragon is the largest lizard.

4. Snakes – This is a cold-blooded animal. There are two thousand nine hundred species of snakes. There are snakes that have poisonous venom like the King Cobra. Pythons are snakes that can swallow larger animals such as zebras and deer.

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A Comparison Of Important Features Of Selected Animal Phyla Chart The Hawker Siddeley HS121 Trident

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The Hawker Siddeley HS121 Trident

DESIGN ORIGINS

When airlines crossed the decade line between the 1950s and 1960s, an increasing number of their long-range, high-capacity aircraft were powered by pure-jet engines, whose speed, comfort, and high-altitude characteristics resulted in overwhelming passenger acceptance. This soon prompted the question of whether this powerplant type would only serve this segment, as originally envisioned, or whether it would find its way on to lower-capacity, shorter-range aircraft once thought only appropriate for propeller technology.

BEA British European Airways was one of the first carriers to believe that it would. Although it ordered 20 Vickers Vanguards in December of 1956, a short-range airliner powered by four Rolls Royce Tyne turboprops and accommodating up to 139 single-class, six-abreast passengers, it foresaw the need for a few jet aircraft that could carry a similar number of passengers, but offer considerably higher cruise speeds. Seeking to fill this early-jet need and succeed its quad-engine Comet, de Havilland proposed the DH.121.

After the Hawker Siddeley Group was formed and the type became one of its projects, it was redesignated “HS.121” and its three-engine configuration earned it the “Trident” name.

DESIGN FEATURES

The Hawker Siddeley HS.121 Trident, with a 114.9-foot span, a 35-degree sweepback, and a 1,358-square-foot area. featured a semi-monocoque fuselage constructed of both aluminum and copper alloy, and it was divided into a main, forward, pressured section, which ran as far as the side turbofan mounting positions, and an aft, unpressurized one, which supported the engines themselves, along with the vertical and horizontal tail. The nose and main gear wheel wells were also unpressurized, as was the wing center section.

The wings, whose span totaled 89.10 feet, were made of aluminum alloy stringers and skins and consisted of single, continuous wingtip-to-wingtip construction. They integrally contained a six-cell center section box across the fuselage, a two-cell box running from each wing root to a position equaling 40 percent of their span, and a single-cell box from this location to the tips. Each airfoil contained a drooped leading edge, three-section double-slotted trailing edge flaps, and alerions, all of which were of metal construction. Each forward outer flap additionally acted as an airbrake and each forward, inner one also served as a spoiler or lift dumper.

Leading and trialing edge devices, along with the ailerons, operated off of three independent hydraulic systems, only one of which was required for full activation, although there was no provision for manual reversion.

The all-metal tailplane, which featured a bullet fairing at the t-configured meeting point, was comprised of an all-moving horizontal stabilizer and a trialing edge geared, slotted, trim tab-devoid flap, and a rudder-provisioned vertical surface.

The tailplane gave the aircraft a 27-foot overall height.

Power was provided by three 9,850 thrust-pound Rolls Royce RB.163-1 Mk 525-5 low bypass ratio Spey turbofans, two of which were encased in aerodynamic nacelles and aft fuselage side-mounted, and one of which, with a triangular air intake, was installed in the tail and received its air feed by means of an above-fuselage intake that led to the exhaust cone by means of an s-duct path. Only the two fuselage-mounted engines were thrust reverser equipped.

The hydraulically actuated, tricycle undercarriage, deviating from what had become standard on commercial airliners, consisted of a twin-wheel nose gear that was mounted two feet to the left of the centerline so that forward baggage compartment space could be increased. It retracted laterally, to the right, and was provisioned with a Lockheed oleo-pneumatic shock absorber. The two quad-wheel main bogies, each featuring two tandemly arranged wheels, were provisioned with Hawker Siddeley shock absorbers. They uniquely rotated 90 degrees and increased in length by six inches during retraction and then settled into under-fuselage center section wells.

All nose and main gear units were equipped with Dunlop wheels and tires, multi-plate disc brakes, and Maxaret antiskid.

Fuel was stored in five wing-integral tanks, two of which were located in each wing and the fifth of which was installed in the fuselage center section.

Aircraft entrance was provided by three main, upward-opening, plug-type doors, the first of which was installed on the forward, left side, directly behind the flight deck, and used for passenger boarding; the second of which was installed on the mid-left side, immediately ahead of the wing leading edge; and the third of which was installed on the forward, right side. The latter two were used for galley provisioning. There were also two overwing emergency exits.

The Trident’, which was standardly flown by a three-person cockpit crew, featured an automatic landing system, which itself was operated by three independent autopilots. It was the first commercial airliner so-equipped and resulted from BEA’s requirements for an all-weather, year-round capable jet for operation on its European route network on which below-minimum conditions were frequently encountered.

The aircraft also featured, as previously mentioned, three independent hydraulic systems, each of which operated off of an engine-driven pump and powered the nose wheel steering, the brakes, the undercarriage, and all flight surfaces. Hydraulic system backup was achieved by means of two electrically-driven pumps.

A later-installed AiResearch GTCP-850 auxiliary power unit (APU), provided power for cabin conditioning, engine starting, and generator driving, the latter of which supplied electric power.

The passenger cabin was standardly configured with a forward, port lavatory and a starboard galley aligned with its servicing door and was usually followed by the first class section, which was in a four-abreast, two-two, arrangement. The mid, port galley door served as the natural separation between sections, the coach one usually in a six-abreast, three-three, arrangement. Two further lavatories were located in the tail.

Each reclining seat was equipped with a pull-down tray table, a literature pocket, an astray, and a seatbelt. Overhead passenger service units (PSU’s) featured fresh air vents, reading lights, and flight attendant call buttons. A single overhead rack, suitable only for coat, hat, pillow, and blanket storage, was installed on either side of the cabin. Sidewalls, interspersed by pull-down, shade-provided, oval windows, were molded.

Configuration, density, seat fabric and pattern, and carpet and galley/lavatory wall and door color varied according to customer request. An all-first class, four-abreast, two-two configuration, for instance, could have been chosen. Although BEA selected an 88-passenger, dual-class density, the aircraft’s maximum passenger capacity was 103. Any or all seats could be optionally installed in the rear-facing direction.

Lavatory water and toilet flushing worked off of a pneumatic system.

Cabin pressurization and air conditioning were attained by means of two Hawker Siddeley Dynamics air conditioning systems, only one of which was needed for complete cabin pressurization.

Baggage, cargo, and mail were carried in two below-deck holds located ahead of and behind the wing and accessed by a single starboard hatch. An air conditioning system could be optionally installed in the forward one to facilitate the transport of live animals.

Carrying a 22,000-pound payload, the Trident had a maximum takeoff weight of 115,000 pounds. Range, with this payload, was 930 miles and high cruise speed was 599 mph.

A comparison between it and its identically configured Boeing 727 counterpart serves to highlight their differences. Powered by the same number of turbofans, which were of a significantly lower thrust rating, the initial Trident 1 version accommodated 28 fewer passengers and offered a third less range, placing it more in a Caravelle III class, which was a twin-engine design.

FIRST FLIGHT AND SERVICE ENTRY

August 4, 1961 proved a milestone for BEA. Coincident with the delivery of the last of its 14 ordered Comet 4Bs was the rollout, from the Hatfield factory of its first Trident 1, draped in its livery and registered G-ARPA, although it was only fitted with two Spey engines at the time.

Appearing radically different than its predecessor, quad-engine counterparts that included the DH.106, the 707, and the DC-8, the Hawker Siddeley HS.121 Trident became the world’s first t-tailed tri-jet and technically de Havilland’s 121st design.

Seemingly shadowed by its US 727 equivalent during its subsequent sales tour, the Trident became the perpetual loser when it came to launch orders. In both Australia, one of the UK’s crown colonies, Hawker Siddeley was almost assured of sales, but ultimately failed to garner any, and in Japan, where both tri-jets were demonstrated to All-Nippon Airways and Japan Air Lines, the Boeing design once again won all the orders, leaving the Trident to return with nothing more than BEA’s 24-unit order and the thousands of fruitless miles it had covered.

While a blizzard delayed its targeted December first flight, it succeeded in achieving it on January 9, 1962. Under the command of de Havilland Chief Test Pilot John Cunningham, the 90,000-pound, t-tailed airliner took to the sky at a 130-knot speed, using only half of the 6,000-foot runway., The successful one-hour, 20-minute sorties, conducted as high as 15,000 feet and as fast as 330 knots, only experienced a single glitch when the starboard main gear became stuck during a retraction-extension test. Depressurization of one of the hydraulic systems remedied the situation.

After touchdown and a 3,000-foot deceleration on the runway, Cunningham commented, “I am delighted with the Trident’s handling qualities. She is superb to fly.”

The three-aircraft flight test program conducted by G-ARPA, -ARPB, and -ARPC, revealed two significant aerodynamic anomalies: the outboard ailerons were not necessary and a root-installed, moveable leading edge flap needed to operate in conjunction with the existing droop, both of which would improve the type’s lift at low speeds. G-ARPC was the first to fly without the outboard aileron.

Two other aircraft later joined the flight test program: G-ARPD, which first flew on January 17, 1963, tested the new leading edge high lift devices intended for an export version, and G-ARPE, which first flew six months later, on June 3, sported the first full-airline interior.

By December 12, aircraft G-ARPE undertook route-proving flights to 16 airports in 11 countries from London-Heathrow after its 80 airborne-hour demonstration tour to the Far East. BEA’s first aircraft, G-ARPF, was delivered at Stansted on December 12 for crew training and its Certificate of Airworthiness was granted two months later, on February 18, 1964, after a 1,600-hour flight test program.

Sporting an 80-passenger, dual-class interior, with a forward and mid galley, two aft-facing rows in the forward cabin, and three in the aft one, BEA’s Trident 1, G-ARPC, inaugurated Comet 4B substitution service on March 11 between London and Copenhagen, followed by additional and ad hoc flights to Geneva and Nice. But scheduled service officially commenced on April 1 to Zurich.

Ultimately operating its European route sectors and sometimes replacing its now outdated, turboprop-powered Viscounts, the type attracted ten-percent higher load factors.

A year after it had entered service, its 14 Tridents had carried more than 322,000 passengers and flown almost 3.7 million miles.

On April 1, 1965, it inaugurated “QuickSilver” air shuttle service between London and Paris with up to 13 weekday fights with the type, and in the summer, it operated the Amsterdam, Brussels, Copenhagen, Dusseldorf, Paris, and Zurich routes from Manchester, replacing Viscounts.

Demonstrating its capability, aircraft G-ARPR made the first commercial Autoland landing at London-Heathrow after its cross-channel sector from Paris-Le Bourget on June 10, 1965.

With its aerodynamically clean wings and aft-mounted turbofans, passengers enjoyed the type’s quiet, above-the-weather cruise on BEA”s short- to medium-range route network and it experienced high dispatch reliability amid some of the most adverse weather conditions because of its avionics and automatic landing capability.

Twenty-four Trident 1s were built, but their operation by a single carrier alerted of the fact that improvements to the basic design could attract additional sales, resulting in the Trident 1E.

THE TRIDENT 1C AND 1E

Seeking to improve the performance of the baseline Trident 1, Hawker Siddeley introduced a 1,000-Imperial gallon fuel capacity increase, resulting in the 1C version. All of BEA’s 24 aircraft were subsequently converted to this standard.

Hardly the cure-all to the design’s passenger capacity and range deficiencies, Hawker Siddeley incorporated additional features into the 1E (for “Export”) variant in order to procure sales beyond the insular UK area. Incorporating a 5.2-foot wingspan increase, which gave it a new 95-foot span and, hence, additional fuel tankage, it featured greater lift be means of full-span leading edge slats, which themselves replaced the Trident 1’s and 1C’s droop, improving low-speed lift. Its resultant wing area became 1,446 square feet.

Coupled with the wingspan increase and the leading edge devices were 11,400 thrust-pound Rolls Royce RB.163-25 Mk 511-5 Spey turbofans.

Although the aircraft retained the same internal dimensions, its greater payload capability enabled 115 passengers in a single-class, high-density arrangement to be accommodated, which was still 16 fewer than the 727-100’s maximum capacity, but it required the installation of two additional overwing emergency exits. Hinged, inward-opening entry doors were replaced with upward-sliding ones, creating unobstructed passage, and an internal reconfiguration took single-class capacity to between 106 and 139, the latter equaling that of the Vickers Vanguard.

Both payload and gross weights respectively increased to 25,170 and 135,500 pounds, and a new high-speed cruise of 605 mph was possible.

Sporting launch customer Kuwait Airways’ livery, which had made a two-firm and a single optioned order, the Trident 1E, registered G-ASWU, first flew from Hatfield on November 2, 1964 and was granted its Certificate of Airworthiness one year later.

Iraqi Airways, which became the second customer for the type when it ordered three Trident 1Es two years previously, actually became its first operator when It inaugurated it into service between Baghdad and London no November 22, 1965, albeit on only twice-weekly frequencies. Registered YI-AEA, it constituted its first pure-jet airliner. With March 5 and May 13 deliveries of its other two, it was able to serve Middle Eastern regional routes and those to Europe with its three-Trident fleet.

Pakistan International, which had made a three-firm and two-optioned order on January 26, 1964, placed the type into service two years later, on April 1, serving cities such as Kuwait to the west from its Karachi home base and Dacca and Baghdad to the east with it, replacing Viscounts and, in some cases, quad-engine Boeing 720s.

Aside from the ten Trident 1Es produced, another five HS.121-1E-140s were ordered by Channel Airways, which configured them for 139 passengers at a 31-inch pitch, but required a seven-abreast forward cabin to achieve. They had slightly higher, 135,800-pound gross weights.

Taking delivery, in the event, of only two for operation on charter, inclusive tour, and scheduled services, it relinquished the other three to BKS Air Transport, which took delivery of two, and Air Ceylon, which received the remaining one.

Fifteen improved HS.121-1Es and -1E-140s were altogether built.

While the Trident was designed around BEA’s limitations, BEA was eventually restricted by them. Expansion, in the fall of 1964, to Eastern Mediterranean markets, which exceeded the range of its Comet 4Bs, necessitated an aircraft with at least a 2,000-mile range so that it could serve destinations such as Beirut and Tel Aviv. The remedy was the Trident 2E, for which it made a 15-firm and 10-optioned order on August 5, 1965.

THE TRIDENT 2E

Key to the longer-range Trident 2E, whose fuselage remained dimensionally unchanged, was its three 11,960 thrust-pound Rolls Royce RB.163 Mk 512 Spey turbofans, which featured a redesigned first compressor stage. Installation of low-drag Kuchemann wingtips extended the span to 98 feet and increased the area to 1,462 square feet. A 350-Imperial gallon fuel tank was installed in the all-flying horizontal stabilizer and a slimmer tailplane bullet was employed. The APU, originally restricted to ground-only operation, was now usable in flight.

The version, with a 143,500-pound gross weight, and a new, 6,400-Imperial gallon fuel capacity, had a 2,400-mile range.

Wearing BEA colors and registered G-AVFA, first Trident 2E made its three-hour, 30-minute maiden flight on July 27, 1967 and was certified the following year, on April 15, after a four-aircraft, 533-hour flight test program.

The aircraft was now standardly quipped with two very high frequency omnidirectional range and instrument landing systems (VOR-ILS’s); dual automatic direction finders (ADFs); very high frequency and high frequency radios, the latter with Sel-Cal; three radio altimeters; a transponder; and weather radar.

While passenger capacity had increased, no internal dimension changes had occurred, leaving cabin length, excluding the cockpit, as 67 feet, 1.5 inches, width at 11 feet, 3.5 inches, and height at six feet, 7.5 inches.

Standard configuration entailed a lavatory and a single-unit galley on the forward, port and starboard sides, respectively, followed by three rows of first class seats in a four-abreast, two-two, arrangement. As had occurred on the Trident 1, 1C, and 1E, the mid-cabin access doors provided the natural divider between classes. The six-abreast, three-three, configured coach cabin was followed by two tail-installed lavatories, resulting in a 91-passenger complement. BRA, however, operated its 2Es with single-class, 97-passenger interiors. Although the type’s maximum capacity was 132, up to 149 could be accommodated in a high-density arrangement, but required several seven-abreast rows.

The unique configuration gave carriers the option of a three-class interior, consisting of a four-abreast first class, a six-abreast business or coach, and a seven-abreast economy one. Because of the density, the Trident’s overall capacity had increased by a third, from its original 103 to its current 149, but did not sacrifice payload for range due to its increased wing lift and higher-thrust engines.

Below-deck baggage, cargo, and mail volume had equally not changed. Its two holds, with 2.11- by 4.0-foot forward and 2.8- by 2.11-foot aft hatches still respectively offered 490- and 270-cubic-foot volumes.

Weights, however, had changed. Its maximum payload and takeoff weights had respectively increased to 26,800 and 143,500 pounds. Range, with a 16.020-pound payload, escalated to 2,500 miles, the latter primarily achieved with a new fuel volume that facilitated nonstop London-Middle East routes. Economy and high cruise speeds respectively increased to 596 and 605 mph. Its maximum landing weight was 113,000 pounds.

Although BEA occasionally substituted the type for the Trident 1C, it was officially inaugurated into service on June 1, 1968 with initial schedules to Dublin, Madrid, Milan, and Stockholm, but it subsequently replaced its Comet 4Bs with the type to Moscow and Eastern Mediterranean destinations, featuring three cabin configurations: 16 first and 73 economy, 8 first and 85 economy, and 97 in a single-class density.

Numerically the most popular version, with a 50-aircraft production run, it was operated by BEA itself (15), Cyprus Airways (2), and CAAC (33), the communist Chinese carrier’s first short-range western airliner.

Although its sales were hardly impressive, the basic Trident design, hampered by downsizing and engine unavailability, had achieved a degree of engineering success in and of itself. Employing its original fuselage, a marginally increased wingspan due to its new Kuchemann tips, and only slightly uprated Rolls Royce Spey turbofans, it approached its original, Medway-powered parameters by offering greater field performance, accommodating a third more passengers, connecting cities over 2,000 miles apart, and enjoying high dispatch reliability because of its Category II Autoland capability.

But growing traffic on certain routes required additional seating, as demonstrated by the Boeing 727, whose original -100 variant accommodated 131, but its succeeding -200 took this figure to the 189-mark. In order to remain competitive, Hawker Siddeley once again had to offer a higher-capacity, stretched variant, which took form as the Trident 3.

THE TRIDENT 3 AND 3B

The Boeing 727, once the follower of the Trident, became its leader-and the catalyst to a higher-capacity version to meet growing traffic demand. Powered by uprated Pratt and Whitney JT8D turbofans, it introduced a fuselage stretch; a fourth main door, which was located behind the wing, as its existing third now was; and a capacity increase from the 727-100’s 131 maximum to the 727-200’s 189, placing it in an accommodation category equal to that of the 720, but with one less powerplant.

Hawker Siddeley responded with its own higher-capacity, stretched-fuselage counterpart, the Trident 3, but limited Spey engine capability posed a far greater challenge and necessitated a longer than anticipated development period in which to surmount it.

The new version featured a fuselage length of 119.11 feet and a new overall length of 131.2 feet. Height had also increased-in this case, to 28.3 feet. Beyond the dimensional change, the mid, starboard door was relocated to the aft, right side, positioned only inches from the engine, and the number of overwing emergency exits was reduced by half, to two.

While the wingspan remained the same 98 feet as that of the Trident 2E, its overall area increased to 1,498 square feet, resulting in a wing loading of 100.5 pounds per square foot. Increased low-speed lift was attained by means of an additional flap span, the trailing edge double-slotted flaps now offering a 291.9-square-foot area. Two 15.3-square-foot, all-metal spoilers were also installed.

Fuel capacity decreased to 5,620 Imperial gallons, but an additional 380-Imperial gallon wing center section tank could be optionally chosen. Pressure fueling was undertaken at a single point on either wing. Oil capacity was three Imperial gallons per engine.

The vertical fin had a total area of 202 square feet, with the rudder alone measuring 52.1 square feet. The horizontal fin area was 300 square feet.

Power was still provided by the three 11,960 thrust-pound Rolls Royce RB.163-25 Mk 512-5W Spey turbofans that were fitted to the previous, shorter-fuselage Trident 2E, but the thrust shortage was uniquely resolved with the installation of a 5,250 thrust-pound Rolls Royce RB.162-86 booster jet below the rudder and just above the number two engine. It was fed by two air intake ducts positioned in the vertical tail and its exhaust cone was located directly above that of the number two powerplant.

Used only during takeoff and initial climb, the booster jet enabled the aircraft to overcome its increased weight, yet maintain respectable field performance without requiring the retrofit of a new engine type. As a result, he Trident 3 became the world’s first three-and-a-half engine airliner.

The larger version featured a stronger undercarriage to cater to the increased weights. With a 29 X 8 nose wheel tire size, whose pressure was 124 psi, and a 36 X 10 main wheel tire size, whose pressure was 165-psi, it retained its unique configuration with its off-center, laterally-retracting nose unit and tandem-wheeled, 90-degree rotating main ones.

Beyond the engine and wing modifications, an advanced automatic landing system certified for Category IIIA landings was installed.

The interior volume increase-the first and, in the event, the only one over that of the baseline Trident 1 and 2 variants-resulted in a new overall length of 83.5 feet, excluding the flight deck, and a new height of 6.8 feet, although its width remained the same. Because of the dimensional change, configurations were more flexible. Single-unit galleys were installed on both the forward port and starboard sides.

In a 14-passenger arrangement, the first class section consisted of a single pair of left-side seats and three rows of four-abreast ones at a 38-inch pitch. A 122-passenger coach section, separated by a curtained divider was in the standard six-abreast, three-three, configuration. Aft, port and starboard positions in the tail accounted for both single-unit galleys and lavatories.

Higher capacities were achieved with single-class arrangements, totaling 152 passengers at a 30-inch pitch and 180 at a 28-inch pitch, although the latter required the removal of some galley and lavatory facilities and a seven-abreast arrangement in the center section. In order to meet exit-limited evacuation requirements, a fifth door had to be installed on the aft, left side.

Lower-deck cargo volume commensurately increased-in this case, to 633 cubic feet in the forward hold and to 477 cubic feet in the aft one.

Weights, not surprisingly, were higher, increasing to a 38,722-pound payload and a 150,000-pound takeoff one, the latter of which required an 8,900-foot runway. Range, with its maximum fuel uplift, reserve allocations, and a 28,200-pound payload, became 2,860 miles, but decreased to 1,785 with its full payload. Its speeds varied from a 601-mph maximum at 28,300 feet to a 533-mph cruise at between 29,000 and 33,000 feet. Its 128,500-pound maximum landing weight necessitated a 5,690-foot runway.

Registered G-AWYZ, the first Trident 3 first took to the sky on December 11, 1969 without its booster jet, but achieved this feat three months later with it on March 22, using this additional power during acceleration and initial climb-out.

The five-aircraft, 14-month, 700-hour flight test program resulted in certification on February 8, 1971. British European Airways, which made a 26-firm and 2-optioned order for the elongated version, placed it into ad hoc service on March 1 of that year between London-Heathrow and Paris-Orly, sporting a 14-first and 119-coach cabin, but it officially entered scheduled operations the following month, on April 1, to Paris and Lisbon.

When the version was certified for Category IIIA landings in May of 1972, BEA had the rest of its Trident 1C and 2E fleet upgraded to this standard. As its European workhorse, the type provided reliable service and was well-received by passengers.

Although it was initially envisioned as meeting demand increases on inter-United Kingdom and European sectors, such as those from London to Amsterdam and Paris, its increased capacity failed to attract non-UK-carrier orders from the likes of Air France, Lufthansa, Iberia, Alitalia, and Olympic, which acquired the competing 727-200 instead.

A Trident 3B restored some of the larger-capacity version’s lost range, which increased to 1,900 miles, and was achieved with the installation of the 400-Imperial gallon center section fuel tank. Only two conforming to this standard, which had a 159,900-pound gross weight, were built for CAAC, leaving Hawker Siddeley with no option but to discontinue the program.

PROGRAM PERSPECTIVE

The Hawker Siddeley HS.121 Trident was the first three-engine jetliner and, because of the need to provide additional power for its first and only stretched version with a small, vertical tail installed booster jet, the first and only three-and-a-half one. De Havilland and later, Hawker Siddeley, succeeded in creating the design solution for an uneven number of powerplants by placing all three aft, but two were fuselage-mounted and the third was installed in the tail and fed by means of an s-shaped duct. Its t-tail configuration eliminated horizontal stabilizer exhaust interference and greater lift was generated with uninterrupted, aerodynamically clean, swept-back wings.

It represented the transition between the once conventional, intermediate-range, quad-engine Convair 880 and Boeing 720 designs and its own, introducing capacity and range variations in ratio to powerplant number, and became the first in a series of similarly-configured tri-jets that included the Boeing 727 in the US and the Tupolev Tu-154 and the Yakovlev Yak-42 in the USSR.

Although its early and innovative status should theoretically have guaranteed its success, its problem- and delay-plague program placed it at a disadvantage, entailing its initial design by one aircraft manufacturer, de Havilland, and its continued one by another, Hawker Siddeley; its application for a single customer, British European Airways, and not the world market; its downsizing and use of lower-rated turbofans that restricted its later growth and ability to meet other carrier needs; the time these obstacles lost, giving other manufacturers the opportunity to play catch-up and offer their own designs in what began as a virgin market, particularly that 727 in the US and the Caravelle in France, as airlines, responding to unprecedented passenger demand, realized that pure-jet technology was appropriate for all route sector lengths and that piston and turboprop aircraft would be quickly replaced by it.

Lastly, the political interferences that twice prompted British aircraft industry consolidation dealt the final attention deviating blow to a program that should have been solely about building airplanes.

Comparative sales of the two western tri-jets serve to prove the relative success of the Trident, which tackled these problems, and the 727, which did not, to each other. The former totaled 117 and the latter 1,832.

Nevertheless, the type’s innovative design configuration and its dual-fuselage length, seven-variant program, comprising the Trident 1, 1C, 1E, 1E-140, 2E, 3, and 3B, in which Hawker Siddeley poured every possible, rectifying feature into an aircraft plagued by inadequate power without employing a new engine type, emphasized its continual attempt to restore what it should always have been as the originally-sized and -engined de Havilland DH.121 and thus should hardly be discounted.

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A Comparison Of Empathy For Humans And Empathy For Animals Emotional Contagion: Being an "Emotional Sponge"

You are searching about A Comparison Of Empathy For Humans And Empathy For Animals, today we will share with you article about A Comparison Of Empathy For Humans And Empathy For Animals was compiled and edited by our team from many sources on the internet. Hope this article on the topic A Comparison Of Empathy For Humans And Empathy For Animals is useful to you.

Emotional Contagion: Being an "Emotional Sponge"

Empathy is a universal human ability.

When it is truly absent or deficient, as in cases of autism or psychopathy, we describe it as a serious mental illness. However, like most other human qualities, empathy may be naturally stronger in some individuals. It can also be consciously or unconsciously encouraged or defended. As a result, some individuals will be very and almost overly empathetic with others. They often describe themselves as “emotional sponges,” helplessly absorbing the feelings, good and bad, of those around them.

Empathy is the earliest form of communication.

Human beings communicate through empathic connection from birth. Mothers and babies accurately read each other’s emotional communications. This ability is never lost, and we all use empathic understanding of other people’s feelings to round out and color what they are telling us. We all know that the same words delivered in a gentle or sarcastic tone can have very different implications and emotional effects.

However, we rarely think about this subliminal communication and are usually not aware of how we do it.

Anxiety and anger are the most “attractive”

While all emotions can be transmitted empathetically between people, the most problematic feelings are those of anxiety and anger.

There are good evolutionary reasons for this.

All higher animals are sensitive to environmental danger signals from others around them. An alarm signal prepares the individual for self-defense action, either fight or flight. Readiness for action involves vascular, muscular respiratory and endocrine responses which we then experience as PHYSICAL feelings of anxiety and tension.

Interpersonal Signal Reading – Visual and vocal changes communicate anxiety.

As early as 1949, psychological researchers such as Jurgen Reusch observed that in humans, the transmission of danger signals can be visible: sweating, tense postures, shallow breathing, flushing, general discomfort.

There are also audible cues: voices may become high-pitched or shrill, pitch may rise or alternate arrhythmically between high and low, there may be rushing or hastening of speech, lack of pauses, interruptions in others, changes in the speed of speech. , or inappropriate laughter. The opposite look is also indicative of anxiety: slurred speech, long pauses, and no introductory words like “ah” or “uh.”

Semantic or textual data.

Reusch also found that when anxious conversations are transcribed, anxiety can be signaled in the conversation by an increase in the number of words related to feelings, personal pronouns, and subjective qualifiers, which are recognized by the reader as indicators of self-concern. Anger is signaled by expressions of self-motivated action, “doing” rather than “feeling.” By comparison, a relaxed attitude is characterized by an increase in the number of concrete nouns and objective qualifications.

All these details and more are unconsciously or semi-consciously absorbed by a conversational partner or bystander and intuitively understood as signals of alarm or excitement that can then cause anxiety or excitement in them as well.

Emotional contagion researcher Elaine Hatfield notes that human beings have a “tendency to automatically imitate and synchronize facial expressions, vocalizations, postures, and movements with those of another person and, consequently, to converge emotionally” (Hatfield et al, 1992). .

Mirror neurons are the basis for empathy

Recent research has revealed a sophisticated system of “mirror neurons” in the brain. Mirror neurons sit next to motor neurons that send movement signals to our muscles. Mirror neurons, however, fire when we observe gestures, especially intentional gestures in others. In fact, when we watch another person do something, we experience the gestures themselves in a microscopic way from within. Most of the time this doesn’t translate into action, but most of us have had the experience of swaying slightly in sympathy with the moves of a skater or skier we see on TV, or of “jumping in our seat” to cheer on a favorite. athlete to add more speed to a race. These are ways in which we show that we are participating empathetically in the efforts we see in others.

However, participating in the experience of others is not limited to copying gestures.

As I have described above, there are many “gestures” in the sense of the physical and verbal changes we observe in others that relate to states of feeling. These indications are also responses from our mirror neurons and this is now suggested to be the basis of sensitivity. Unfortunately, it is also the root of emotional attachment and leads to situations where a person can be unconsciously and unwillingly “captured” by the feelings of those around them.

Reducing this tension, good and bad ways

When tension and emotional contamination are mild, it may be possible to simply shake it off or relieve it with small reactions like a nervous laugh.

When stronger, a person may intuitively try to cope with this interpersonal pressure by trying to calm or soothe the other so that they stop sending signals of anxiety or anger. In this way they behave as a good parent might when a child has communicated their concern.

However, if the emotional pressure on the other is not easily relieved, a sensitive person may find themselves drawn into a constant cycle of caring and comforting the other, who may become exploitative or abusive.

  • An example of this might be a sibling who constantly calls and vents all of his or her anxiety and tension on their sister late at night. The caller leaves the exchange feeling temporarily relieved and reassured and the call recipient is now left tossing and turning all night worrying about their sibling

The constant experience of emotional attachment is “devastating” and over time can cause harm.

It is one of the features of this form of unconscious, non-verbal communication that the sender often tries to get rid of or “evacuate” feelings that they do not like to feel or think, in themselves and also in others. As a result, they can be surprisingly unempathetic to the emotional states they evoke in the recipient. They will often deny that they even have feelings of anxiety or anger themselves and may attack their partner for showing signs of such weakness when they respond with empathic contagion.

This leaves the receiver in the difficult psychological position of assuming that he is the only one who feels so anxious, angry or upset.

  • As a result of denying the other, the feelings that are triggered through emotional contagion are often not recognized as arising in the other, and the recipient may try to explain away these strange and uncomfortable feelings as if they were their own.
  • This leads to internal conversations where the sensitive and responsive individual may lash out at himself for always being “anxious for no reason” and worrying about his health or mental stability.
  • Left carrying the burden of unpleasant feelings, the recipient may seek relief in unhealthy ways, such as overeating, drinking, smoking, shopping, video games, or other diversions.

Emotional contagion strikes a chord with the recipient

“We are all more simply human than otherwise”

Empathy and emotional contagion work because all human beings are susceptible to feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, and despair in some circumstances. Emotional contagion rings our personal bells and makes us hunt within ourselves for an explanation of our uncomfortable feelings.

  • The receiver of emotional attachment can sometimes create problems even unconsciously for himself because he can be pushed towards weave situations which will extenuate their unexplained anxiety, depression, hopelessness or despair.

Awareness helps.

Being aware that it is possible to empathetically resonate with another person’s feelings can go a long way in preventing worse outcomes. It may allow the sensitive person to ask, “Are these feelings really more appropriate for my partner than for me at this moment?”

Knowing that emotions are contagious can give you a clue as to how you can regulate your experiences of contagion. Sometimes it can be emotionally wise to limit the time you spend in the psychological environments of people who are depressed, bitter, or angry.

In terms of emotional responses, you’re in a two-person field

Emotional contagion researcher Hatfield suggests:

“In social interaction, focusing only on oneself or only on the other can be equally blinding. The most information can be obtained by alternately monitoring one’s own reactions and observing one’s partners and occasionally moving to a level another analysis to focus on what is going on in the interaction’.

It is easier to see from the outside

Because emotional attachment is so subtle and related to our human fears, it is sometimes more easily recognized by an outsider. Talking to a trusted friend, counselor or therapist can be a way to get the perspective you need.

regain your perspective on the situation and stop the disturbing inner talk about powerlessness or inferiority.

Emotional contagion in short bursts is a valuable and powerful form of interpersonal communication.

A sensitive and aware individual can use it to empathize with another person’s real feelings in a situation and do what needs to be done to reduce the other person’s tension… but when it starts to attack your mental balance and long-term emotional, it’s time to learn more about it!

References:

Reusch, J. & Prestwood, AR, (1949). Anxiety: It’s initiation, communication and interpersonal management, Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, Vol. 62 No. 5, pp. 527-550.

E. Hatfield, JT Cacioppo and RL Rapson, (1992) Primitive emotional attachment, Emotions and Social Behavior: Review of Personality and Social Psychology14, pp. 153-154

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A Community Of Plants Animals And Their Surroundings Is Called Is A SoyChlor Plant Killing Animals, People, And Children In Jefferson Iowa?

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Is A SoyChlor Plant Killing Animals, People, And Children In Jefferson Iowa?

On October 28, 2005, over 250 residents of Jefferson, Iowa, represented by attorneys from LaMarca & Landry, PC, filed suit against West Central Cooperative in the Iowa District Court for Greene County. The parties in this lawsuit include homeowners, business owners and people who work at nearby workplaces, such as MicroSoy, Electrolux and American Concrete.

Causes of action include nuisance, negligence, trespass, res ipsa loquitur, and strict liability for performing an abnormally dangerous activity. The claims stem from numerous environmental and health changes that have occurred since Soy Chlor’s Jefferson, Iowa plant began operations on February 14, 2005. These problems stem primarily from the emission of hydrogen chloride, hydrochloric acid and particulates at the plant. Soy Chlorine containing one or both of these chemicals. Soy Chlorine is a patented dairy cattle feed additive that combines hydrochloric acid with soy product.

The lawsuit also alleges violations of West Central Cooperative’s IDNR operating permit for this plant, as well as violations of the Hazardous Chemicals Act and other applicable environmental laws and standards of care.

West Central opened the business – SoyChlor – in February. Since then, emissions from the plant have corroded metal buildings and other property within a mile of the plant, the lawsuit alleges. The discharges have also killed grass and other vegetation, eliminated wildlife, destroyed windows and bleached surrounding structures and road rocks, the plaintiffs allege.

The plaintiffs allege the plant exceeded legal limits for emissions of hydrogen chloride and “particulate matter,” or dust. When combined with moisture, the chemical turns into hydrochloric acid, a highly corrosive substance known to be toxic to humans and animals.

“It’s plain as day, from my front window,” said Jeb Ball, owner of a used car business west of the SoyChlor plant on Jefferson’s north side. “I have to look at it every day.”

“We think we’re in compliance now,” said Nile Ramsbottom, vice president of soy and feed operations at Ralston-based West Central, but he added that the company plans to increase the height of SoyChlor’s emissions tower to 94 feet in a step wider. disperse emissions and dilute their presence in the soil. West Central also plans to install an additional scrubber system, Ramsbottom said, adding that those steps combined would be more than enough to ensure the plant’s emissions meet legal limits.

The company has asked the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, which oversees manufacturing plant emissions, to allow the changes.

Dave Phelps, who oversees the DNR section that oversees such permits, said the department was prepared to grant the company’s request, but he also expects to have a public comment period and public hearing on the issue this month. He also said recent testing showed the plant’s dust emission rate exceeded the limit allowed by state law.

George LaMarca, a Des Moines attorney representing the plaintiffs in the case, said a hearing and the opportunity for public input are good steps, but ones that should have been taken before the plant opened.

Ball, the owner of the used car business, said Monday that his son, Colton Conroy, 15, has been sickened by SoyChlor emissions. A month ago, a high school sophomore collapsed in a football game, and a treating physician blamed SoyChlor emissions for health problems that first appeared after the plant opened.

Since his collapse, the teenager has been living with his maternal grandparents south of the city and his symptoms have subsided, said Ball and his wife, Diane Conroy.

“He could run track and play football and everything a year ago, and he had no problem,” Ball said.

SoyChlor uses hazardous materials, including hydrogen chloride, to make a patented product added to the feed of dairy cows. Hydrogen chloride is a noxious gas that can be toxic to humans and animals.

When it mixes with moisture, it turns into hydrochloric acid, a highly corrosive substance capable of eating away at the bottom of a vehicle, gouging glass and killing wildlife and vegetation — all of which, residents say, has happened in “the area of decline”, an area. extending a mile or more in each direction from the plant. Gas, acid, and particles contaminated by the gas or acid are emitted through a stack located atop a concrete tower at the north end of the plant.

“In Iowa, when you live in a community this size, you accept it because it’s agriculture,” said Jeff Ostendorf, a Jefferson cattle producer who works at MicroSoy Corp., a maker of soy-based food ingredients located across the street from SoyChlor. “This is different.”

Bonnie Burkhardt lives south of SoyChlor, across the street. One day last week, she flipped through notebooks and three-ring binders in which she has kept meticulous records of communications about the dispute with public officials, company officials and others in the community.

A notebook detailed the potentially harmful effects of the toxic substances used by SoyChlor, along with reports from doctors treating Burkhardt and others who say they have suffered health setbacks this year.

The once lively children now sleep a lot and lose energy quickly, families say. Colton Conroy, a 15-year-old who was just over 6 feet tall, became easily bloated and began to lose weight, his mother said. Adults with respiratory illnesses, including Norma Gross and Ron Lawton, said they got better with medical treatments, but now say they’ve gotten worse.

Last year, Gross was doing well, despite chronic lung disease. But after SoyChlor was opened, she quickly lost ground, struggling to breathe. Her doctors at University Hospitals in Iowa City, where she has been participating in a research project, asked her to leave, she said. But she is a lifelong resident, and she and her husband have raised 10 children here. Gross doesn’t want to live anywhere else.

Also alarming to Gross and Burkhardt is the loss of wildlife. They said the pigeons that perched atop the tall grain storage structures north of the SoyChlor plant have disappeared. Gone are the bluebirds, cardinals, goldfinches and other birds that perched on the many feeders in the Gross backyard. She hasn’t seen a bird in weeks.

“It was like all of a sudden there were no birds, not even sparrows,” said Gross, who lives in a regular trailer park within a mile of the plant.

In addition, stains have appeared on the bottom of vehicles and on the walls of houses and other buildings, and even on mailboxes.

Jefferson residents said the West Central insurer had hired a Florida firm to clean the vehicles affected by the emissions. They also said the insurer had offered checks of up to several hundred dollars to residents claiming property damage, although recipients were required to sign a form releasing the co-op and its affiliates from further claims.

Burkhardt said she first noticed something was wrong when her skin burned while she was working in the flower garden. Eventually, she took him inside, where she would take a shower to stop the burning. That was last spring, after she spent a few months in Florida with her husband, Chuck.

At the same time, Arletta Tasler and her husband returned from a winter in Texas. They both developed coughs that have lasted for months, they said. Sometimes, Tasler said, she has coughed so hard she vomited.

Like Burkhardt, the Taslers had no idea about the cause.

Burkhardt and her friend Diane Conroy talked to neighbors and people who worked in nearby businesses. Within a mile of Burkhardt’s home, they found dozens of people reporting similar symptoms. They had first noticed a strange smell, like the smell of a bag of empty beer cans left in the hot sun for a day, Conroy said.

Then came the health problems. Then stains on vehicles and buildings. Then film on windows and windshields that cleaning couldn’t remove. And some noticed that their glasses were pitted.

The women searched the Internet for information about SoyChlor and the chemicals it used.

The more they learned, the more convinced they were that SoyChlor was the culprit.

“If you get this on your wall, if it’s pitted, think about what it’s doing to your lungs,” said Tasler, who lives with her 49-year-old husband, Shorty, on a farm directly east of the plant where they they raised eight children.

Burkhardt, Conroy and others contacted the city’s sewer chief, the public health nurse and the editor of the local newspaper. They began contacting the government — environmental and safety regulators, Iowa’s US senators, even the White House.

Conroy and her husband, Jeb Ball, contacted their attorney in Des Moines. He referred them to George LaMarca, another Des Moines attorney. LaMarca knew how deadly hydrogen chloride could be. The gas had incapacitated some of the victims in Des Moines’ deadliest fire ever, which engulfed the Younkers department store in the Merle Hay Mall on November 5, 1978. LaMarca represented the victims’ survivors in court proceedings that lasted years and ultimately resulted in a undisclosed settlement for plaintiffs.

He has only five words for the cooperative: “We want the factory to close.”

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A Community Of Plants And Animals That Have Common Characteristics Iqbal’s Apocrypha

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Iqbal’s Apocrypha

Sir Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938), in layman’s terms, was a gifted poet whose verses inspired the Indian Muslims, awakened them from bondage and motivated them to strive for liberty. In fact, Iqbal was a very different man from the Freedom Movement leader our history has conjured up with its imaginative understanding of the great thinker’s ideas and beliefs.

Iqbal was a liberal Muslim with a scientific comprehension of old school religious – specifically Qur’anic – ideas; in other words, he was a reasoning philosopher whose mission was to create a version of Islam – yet again, Qur’an mainly – compatible with modern scientific research. He was a diligent student of German philosophy and had deeply recognized the traits which could render any faith lie frail and submissive before intellectual progress of the human race. As wisely recognized, Iqbal adored his creed, and his honest intentions were to protect “Mohammedanism” from the upcoming onslaught of science in Asia.

How did Iqbal find a way to equally compare Islam and science? How did he defend the legends narrated in Qur’an the like of which are ridiculed in Bible? Well, there exist among Muslim certain groups of pure liberal origins. These factions reject any possibility of miraculous phenomena meddling in human affairs. You may call them the famed (or notorious, I can’t decide) Hadith-Rejectors or the Qur’anists. One of Iqbal’s contemporaries, Ghulam Ahmad Pervez (1903-85) – a close associate of Pakistan’s founding father Muhammad Ali Jinnah – was the leader of one of such movements called Tulu-e-Islam (Rise of Islam). But we’re going a bit farther in history than we ought to. The man whom Iqbal succeeds in what a simple believer would call bizarre beliefs, was none other than the celebrated Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, the intellectual father of All India Muslim League.

Sir Syed (1817-1898), as he’s mentioned throughout all standard Pakistani text books, was a freethinker, if one allows me to categorize such remarkable a personality according to modern taxonomy. It you’re a Pakistani by birth, it’s impossible you have never heard of his services to the Indian Muslim community. Stories are told how he held back politically-impoverished Muslims from joining the Hindu-dominant Congress rather preached the importance of English education for the creation of a more civilized Muslim generation. His Aligarh institutions were criticized by the mullahs, just like his marvelous ideas regarding Qur’an, but eventually people had to surrender before the surge of reason and had to confess that they badly needed to adopt Western standards if they desired to save the Muslims from evaporating before the heat of science.

But how did Sir Syed manage to spark such fierce controversies in India? Answer’s quite simple and Pakistani students are taught about the entire melodrama in their high schools. Sir Syed had gone crazy over exegesis of Qur’an. For example, Muslims believe in existence of spirits called the genies or the jinn. Sir Syed disbelieved in genies and interpreted metaphorically the verses of Qur’an mentioning Prophet Muhammad’s (bless him and his posterity) encounters with these spirits. He refused to believe in seven heavens. Again, it was some allegorical mystery for him. He also intervened in several jurisprudential problems and differed from the mainstream fiqht.

The job Sir Syed wished to perform was to purify Qur’an from israiliyat or the biblical accounts Muslims had begun using to explain certain Qur’anic stories. His concerns were appreciable. For instance, some Muslims still believe that Adam was banished from heavens because he approached the Forbidden Tree however this is the biblical interpretation of the Fall story. Qur’an has explicitly mentioned Adam’s migration to earth after his approach being forgiven by the Almighty. Another example is the story that Jacob fooled his father to become a prophet when Isaac had intended his blessings for his beloved Esau. There are accounts of Abraham lying three times and passing Sarah as his sister in Egypt. And how one can forget the Deluge? Nowhere in Qur’an it is stated that the Flood was universal. Qur’an speaks of it as a punishment for Noah’s nation; it never takes the entire human population into consideration. So, Sir Syed was writing against these Bible-based distortions of Qur’an’s intellectual messages and mythical (pseudo-historical) interpretation of its moral stories.

But the problem was many of these false legends attributed to God’s Word claim origins from the hadiths or the sayings Muhammad was reported to had uttered. Sir Syed was never lacking in his love and trust for Allah’s final apostle. No matter how scientific you get, Muhammad is still the infallible intellectual protagonist you can proudly represent before a westernized world as the perfect example for mankind to follow. So, Sir Syed selected the one option he stumbled upon i.e. rejection of such hadiths. He totally denied submitting before this kind of tafsir or exegesis of Qur’an and used science to understand the Book of the Lord. There were no miracles in this world, as per Sir Syed’s analysis. God runs this universe according to His principles which we call the laws of physics. Science is what God created so we couldn’t dare speak against science, was Sir Syed’s version of Islam.

Thus, one can understand that the accounts of Adam and Eve, the Creationism, the Forbidden Tree, the Original Sin and the Fall of Man were legends in the eyes of Sir Syed. Iqbal, when studied these stories, followed suite.

Iqbal had a PhD in philosophy from the Munich University for his treatise on Persian metaphysics. There’s even a street in Heidelberg (Germany) named after him. Iqbal was once invited by the Italian fascist dictator Mussolini for a brief interview. This respect the Poet of the East commanded in the West was not only because of his poetry (for example, his Secrets of the Self) but mainly due to his philosophical outlooks. The ideas he’s discussed in his verses may be more in number but of lesser magnitude than the ones he communicated to the public via his discourses. These lectures have been compiled as a book known as Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam. The chapter hereby being explained is the Conception of God and the Meaning of Prayer.

According to Iqbal, there exists a general “Qur’anic method of complete or partial transformation of legends in order to besoul them with new ideas”. For evidence, he provides with the example of the Fall story and compares its biblical and Qur’anic versions.

“But the clue to a better understanding of our difficulty is given in the legend relating to what is called the Fall of Man. In this legend the Qur’an partly retains the ancient symbols, but the legend is materially transformed with a view to put an entirely fresh meaning into it.” Observe how Iqbal repeatedly calls the account of Adam a legend. “The Qur’anic method of complete or partial transformation of legends in order to besoul them with new ideas, and thus to adapt them to the advancing spirit of time, is an important point which has nearly always been overlooked both by Muslim and non-Muslim students of Islam. The object of the Qur’an in dealing with these legends is seldom historical; it nearly always aims at giving them a universal moral or philosophical import.” This is the most important part where Iqbal denies any historical value of the Fall story. “And it achieves this object by omitting the names of persons and localities which tend to limit the meaning of a legend by giving it the colour of a specific historical event, and also by deleting details which appear to belong to a different order of feeling. This is not an uncommon method of dealing with legends. It is common in non-religious literature. An instance in point is the legend of Faust, to which the touch of Goethe’s genius has given a wholly new meaning.”

“It is, indeed, impossible to demarcate the stages of its growth, and to set out clearly the various human motives which must have worked in its slow transformation.” This sentence certainly implies that the story of Fall got distorted with time and people inserted their own typical ideas in it in to explain the mystery of our species’ origin.

“But confining ourselves to the Semitic form of the myth… ” The choice of words to describe the Fall story clearly displays Iqbal’s incredulity and his doubts over Creationism.

“… it is highly probable that it arose out of the primitive man’s desire to explain to himself the infinite misery of his plight in an uncongenial environment… ” Iqbal’s direct attempt here is to discredit the biblical outlook of the Fall account where Adam is sent on earth as a punishment for the Original Sin and the entire human population is subjected to misery because of their ancestor’s alleged crime. The poet here has accurately unmasked the human elements responsible for creating the whole legend of the Original Sin which Qur’an has so justly denied. As Iqbal understands, Qur’an defends Adam and Eve when both are charged with the offense, unlike Pentateuch where the woman has been accused of making her man disobey the Lord. Similarly, Qur’an mentions God’s forgiveness before Adam’s Fall. Thus, in Qur’anic version of this story, human migration to earth did not occur due to God’s wrath rather because of God’s “big plan” for His beloved creatures.

But the story of Genesis today’s Jews and Christians adhere to represents humans in a very miserable light when it says:

To the woman he said, “I will make your pains in childbearing very severe; with pain you will give birth to children. Your desire will be for your husband, and he will rule over you.” To Adam he said, “Because you listened to your wife and ate from the tree about which I commanded you, ‘You must not eat of it,’ “Cursed is the ground because of you; through painful toil you will eat of it all the days of your life. It will produce thorns and thistles for you, and you will eat the plants of the field. By the sweat of your brow you will eat your food until you return to the ground, since from it you were taken; for dust you are and to dust you will return.”

(Genesis 3:16-19)

Compare the biblical account with the Qur’anic one.

But Satan caused them to slip out of it and removed them from that [condition] in which they had been. And We said, “Go down, [all of you], as enemies to one another, and you will have upon the earth a place of settlement and provision for a time.” Then Adam received from his Lord [some] words, and He accepted his repentance. Indeed, it is He who is the Accepting of repentance, the Merciful. We said, “Go down from it, all of you. And when guidance comes to you from Me, whoever follows My guidance – there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve.

(Qur’an 2:36-38)

“Having no control over the forces of Nature, a pessimistic view of life was perfectly natural to him.” Here again Iqbal refers to the biblical legend where man accuse his foremost ancestor Adam for sinning against God and bringing misfortune over his descendants.

“Thus, in an old Babylonian inscription, we find the serpent (phallic symbol), the tree, and the woman offering an apple (symbol of virginity) to the man.” Iqbal has undoubtedly studied the Babylonian (more precisely, Sumerian) origins of all Semitic religions. The story of Fall is not unique with Bible or Qur’an, neither is the account of Flood. Both legends are traceable as far as 2,000 BC. Any student of ancient Mesopotamian civilizations can narrate the characteristic features of the myths of Gilgamesh. Similarly, as Iqbal speaks, the story of Fall existed long before rabbis wrote down the Law. Iqbal accuses Bible of retelling an allegoric story in pure historical terms, thereby ruining its moral lessons and misleading the believers in assuming the Fall to be an actual historic event. He appreciates Qur’an of preserving Fall’s philosophical display.

“The way in which the Qur’an handles this legend becomes clear when we compare it with the narration of the Book of Genesis. The remarkable points of difference between the Qur’anic and the Biblical narrations suggest unmistakably the purpose of the Qur’anic narration.” The purpose of Qur’anic narration is to analyze the story of Fall philosophically. Iqbal once more denies any historical value of the Fall account – he has called it a myth or a legend multiple times – and insists that the characters of Adam and Eve were never meant to be created as mankind’s biological ancestors. For Iqbal, Qur’an considers Adam to be precursor to human civilization.

“The Qur’an omits the serpent and the rib-story altogether.” The former omission was designed to “free the story from its phallic setting”. As any religious researcher is aware, the phallus is one of the most ancient deities in mankind’s history. From India to Egypt, the male and female genitalia were worshiped as means of reproduction which they certainly still are. It was just like worshiping sun because it the largest source of heat and light for us earthlings or worshiping fire because it keeps wild beasts away from a human gathering. That’s how ancient religions developed. But, in Iqbal’s view, God didn’t reveal His final words in order to repeat such ancient myths. That’s why Qur’an has omitted all references to the serpent and the rib-story. One can argue that the serpent of Bible and the Satan of Qur’an are the same beings or Qur’an also mentions Eve’s birth from Adam. O mankind, fear your Lord, who created you from one soul and created from it its mate (Q. 4:1).

Here one may attempt to elaborate Iqbal’s vision of Qur’anic metaphors. Bible narrates the story of a serpent actually entering Adam’s physical paradise and spoiling his future. Qur’an represents Satan as an entity that seeks to spark evil in the hearts of man. The Qur’anic “serpent” is a more spiritual being. Similarly, Qur’an never states that Eve was created from Adam’s rib. The verse quoted above can be interpreted in many different ways. According to one theory, God created Eve from Adam’s leftover clay,

“The latter omission is meant to suggest that the purpose of the Qur’anic narration is not historical, as in the case of the Old Testament, which gives us an account of the origin of the first human pair by way of a prelude to the history of Israel.” Iqbal has now clarified his viewpoint that Qur’anic Adam was not the biological ancestor of human beings rather.

“Indeed, in the verses which deal with the origin of man as a living being, the Qur’an uses the words Bashar or Insan, not Adam, which it reserves for man in his capacity of God’s vicegerent on earth.” In other words, man existed before Adam. Adam was the awakening of modern humans when they discovered the necessities of culture and the benefits of civilization. This statement of Iqbal is quite true in light of the Theory of Evolution and the failure of biblical missionaries to equally stand by their religious frenzies and the scientific revelations of the past five hundred years.

If we review the Evolution, we learn that man distinguished itself from the chimps some seven million years ago. It was the time when the genus homo parted its away from the genus pan. The genus homo was the prelude to the story of Adam. many species emerged and got extincted with the passage of time. There were Homo erectus, Homo habilis, Homo naledi, the Heidelberg people etc. The hobbits were the last to die before Homo sapiens. It was ten thousand years ago that Homo sapiens rose victorious in the battle of Natural Selection and won the tournament of the “survival of the fittest”. The man who came up with world’s first civilization was Iqbal’s Adam. He sees Adam and Eve not as two specific persons but as a particular era in human history in which people began to realize they were much more than simple animals; they realized they were God’s vicegerents of the planet earth!

Just look at the story of the Fall once more and you can see the unspoken factors Iqbal desired to put with his lecture. Adam’s creation was contested by the angels. That could be a sign towards Natural Selection. Adam overpowered angels with his knowledge. Iqbal calls this the occult or the hidden secrets man learned before outsmarting other biological beings on earth. Adam approached the Forbidden Tree when he wasn’t supposed to do that. Iqbal calls it man’s first free choice. Man started to make his own complex decisions. So Iqbal has found multiple metaphors in the Qur’anic narration of the Fall.

“The word Adam is retained and used more as a concept than as the name of a concrete human individual.” Voila! No words can describe the vision of Iqbal better than this sentence. Adam was, Iqbal notes, more than a concept than an actual historic human being. Iqbal’s Adam was a genre in human history.

“The Old Testament curses the earth for Adam’s act of disobedience… ” As we have seen in the verses quoted above. Iqbal further says: “Nor does the Qur’an regard the earth as a torture-hall where an elementally wicked humanity is imprisoned for an original act of sin.”

“Nor is there any reason to suppose that the word Jannat (garden) as used here means the supersensual paradise from which man is supposed to have fallen on this earth. According to the Qur’an, man is not a stranger on this earth. “And We have caused you to grow from the earth”, says the Qur’an.” In other words, Iqbal has accepted the truth of the Evolution. Adam fell from the heavens above but Iqbal believes that the jannat referred to in Qur’an is not the paradise where the well-doers shall go on the Day of Resurrection. He also denies that Adam was anywhere out of earth when he approached the Forbidden Tree. Thus, Iqbal’s jannat was somewhere on our planet. His Adam had been inhabiting the world long before the Fall. The entire episode of the Fall occurred right here on earth because, as Iqbal believes, the story of Adam is a mere reflection upon the awakening of a civilized human population.

Qur’an says that human has grown from the earth. What other example of the Evolution mentioned in the Holy Writ can there be? That’s how Iqbal’s words are impressing me right now. Read this sentence again: “According to the Qur’an, man is not a stranger on this earth. “

“The Jannat, mentioned in the legend, cannot mean the eternal abode of the righteous.” The jannat from where Adam came from exists right before our own eyes.

“In the Jannat mentioned in the legend, however, the very first event that took place was man’s sin of disobedience followed by his expulsion.” Qur’an explicitly states that there will be nothing improper in the heavens where the believers are meant to reside forever. The jannat where Adam could sin against God can’t be the jannat mentioned in Qur’an as mankind’s eternal abode. The concept Iqbal has communicated is not a novel one. There are certain Muslim scholars who believe that Adam didn’t live in the actual jannat or the Adam mentioned in Qur’an is someone else than the father of all humans.

“In the second episode of the legend the garden is described as a place “where there is neither hunger, nor thirst, neither heat nor nakedness.” I am, therefore, inclined to think that the Jannat in the Qur’anic narration is the conception of a primitive state in which man is practically unrelated to his environment and consequently does not feel the sting of human wants the birth of which alone marks the beginning of human culture.” hence, the epitome of our analysis or rather Iqbal’s analysis. According to Iqbal, Qur’an narrates the story of mankind’s transition from the state of ignorance to that of knowledge. The primitive state of early humans has been denoted as a garden because mankind was ignorant of its rightful place in the cosmic structure. Adam symbolizes the moment man realized the importance of civilization. In short, the Fall of Man, in Qur’anic terms, is the rise of man in evolutionary biology.

“Thus we see that the Qur’anic legend of the Fall has nothing to do with the first appearance of man on this planet. Its purpose is rather to indicate man’s rise from a primitive state of instinctive appetite to the conscious possession of a free self, capable of doubt and disobedience.” Whereas Torah’s account of the Fall has everything to do with the first appearance of man on this planet. However, as Iqbal has declared, Qur’an mentions the existence of humans long before Adam and Eve. The pre-Adam man was an animal, capable only of surviving and reproducing like all other biological entities. Adam is the moment when man began to reason. He became capable of observation and deduction. He began to understand his problems and look for their solutions. Analysis and deduction became his new tools of survival. Thus, Adam was the first modern human on earth.

Epilogue:

Now, these are all the point we can deduce from this lecture of Iqbal:

• Humans inhabited earth before the appearance of Adam and Eve. Qur’an never states that Adam and Eve were the first human beings ever created.

• Adam and Eve were not two individuals rather the pair is a representation of human civilization. The Fall of Adam symbolizes the awakening of human consciousness.

• The Garden of Eden exists right here on earth and is a different place than the heavens where the good souls will reside.

This article is not a criticism of Iqbal rather some of the ideas he discusses are praiseworthy. His example closely resembles Sir Syed whom all Pakistanis remember with reverence but whose religious beliefs are rejected and condemned. Iqbal’s personality held many diversities. He was a Sunni Muslims yet his adoration of Ali (d. 661), the first cousin of Prophet Muhammad (bless him and his posterity), and Fatimah (d. 632), the beloved daughter of Allah’s Apostle, is a Shia trait in nature. He supported democracy but was a great admirer of Nikolai Lenin. He is supposed to be the originator of the idea of Pakistan but his patriotic poems about a United Hindustan are still popular in India.

In short, Iqbal was a wonderful man and, just like all wonderful men, he had his faults to balance his virtues.

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A Community Of Animals And Plants Interacting With Their Environment The Baka Pygmies of Cameroon

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The Baka Pygmies of Cameroon

A race of hunters and gatherers, the Baka Pygmies, found in Cameroon, live alongside various ethnic groups of Bantu farmers, with whom they trade goods.

With an average height of 1.5 meters, the Baka are, strictly speaking, pygmoids and not pygmies. However, in everyday usage, the term “pygmy” is used.

Exact numbers are difficult to determine, as a semi-nomadic group, they roam the rainforest taking up temporary residence in specific areas that offer rich game and natural resources, but estimates range from 5,000 to 28,000 individuals.

They occupy the forest ecology and use the gifts of nature or the ecosystem. Over the years, important exchange relationships have developed between the hunter-gatherer Baka and the neighboring Bantu cultivators. However, this relationship has been one of tolerance and characterized by hostility. The situation is caused by the condescending attitude and derogatory comments with which the Bantu describe their pygmy neighbors, seeing the Baka as belonging to them, they are victims of racism and exploited on plantations as cheap labor.

One of the most important differences between the Baka pygmies and their Bantu associates is the fact that they owe their entire existence to the natural resources that nature has provided in their habitat, the rainforest.

Like other pygmies, the Baka are culturally, linguistically, and physically different from their Bantu neighbors.

They live in huts they call mongulu, which are single-family homes made of branches and leaves and almost always built by women. After preparing a frame with very flexible, thin branches, recently collected leaves fit into the structure. After the work is completed, other plant materials are sometimes added to the dome to make the structure more compact and waterproof. In addition to the Mongols, the Baka also build rectangular huts made of leaves or bark, just like other ethnic groups, only they use mud and wood.

The Baka know the variety of forest foods, animals and specific seasons when these products can be easily found. Of the various seasons these pygmies experience each year, the three-month period of prolonged heavy rain is the most important. During this period when the forest is abundant, the Bakas leave their permanent villages for the deep forest and wander for several months gathering food. Men perform the most prestigious but arguably most dangerous job of providing meat for the group through hunting and trapping. Women carry wealth in baskets and follow their husbands.

The types of hunting done in the rainforest are with bows, poisoned arrows, bows, spears and traps. Unlike what happens in other pygmy cultures, the Baka do not know how to use hunting nets. The forest animals killed are various types of primates, artiodactyls, rodents, etc., which are hunted at night. They set traps near watercourses to hunt the crocodile, which is usually killed by spears.

Foraging in the forest is one of the most important activities for the survival of the group, gathering mushrooms, fruits, mushrooms, but in some seasons of the year it is possible for them to find small animals, such as termites and caterpillars.

Carried in baskets by the women, the produce comes to the camp and is shared by all the families.

Hunting is one of the most important activities, not only for providing food, but also for the symbolic meanings and prestige traditionally attached to it. Skilled hunters are respected and highly regarded, especially if they specialize in the game’s most useful and important activity: Hunting the Great Elephant.

Mass deforestation these days deprives pygmies of natural resources essential to their biological and cultural survival. Unfortunately, due to the reduction in the number of game and rarer expeditions into the forest, hunting today does not provide the Baka with a sufficient supply of animal protein, which causes serious nutritional problems especially among children.

With insufficient diet and health problems, many of them live a quiet life maintaining a strong cultural identity and marking the boundaries between their form of culture and that of other ethnic groups in the forest.

Of all the aspects of nature that surround the Baka pygmies, they perceive the rainforest as the most valuable force with which they interact.

The typical Baka pygmy will not leave his home in the forest even in exchange for an ultra-modern palace in the city.

They have a thorough knowledge and understanding of the forest and its products, including the healing power of plants, and are in fact the custodians of a large natural pharmacy. Thus their whole life is occupied with the welfare of their forests.

“We are born and raised in the forest; we do everything in the forest, gathering, hunting and fishing. Now where do they want us to make our lives?”

Mbeh: Guitarist Baka

Baka Beyond/Baka Gbine

Music has a central role in Baka’s life. From a young age they have a keen sense of rhythm, as soon as a baby is able to clap, it is encouraged to participate in all the communal music making. There is music for ritual purposes, music for conveying the knowledge, stories and history of the Baka people, and music for pure enjoyment. This shared music continually helps strengthen the bonds between individuals in the group.

Baka music is perhaps best described as harmonic yodeling bursts interwoven in a dynamic and rhythmic manner. It is quite mesmerizing and the environmental setting of the forest makes the overall effect attractive.

Inspired by the magical rhythms and melodies of the Baka people, British musicians Martin Cradick and Su Hart founded Baka Beyond in 1993 after visiting the tribesmen.

They recorded an album “Spirit of the Forest” under the name Baka Beyond which propelled them to worldwide recognition. Since then, the group has evolved into a multicultural, dynamic live stage show with album sales of over a quarter of a million copies.

They have played at WOMAD in the UK, USA and the Czech Republic and on the jazz stage at Glastonbury; Musica Mondial in Sao Paulo, Brazil and many other festivals in the UK, USA, France, Holland, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain and Portugal, as well as headlining the Vancouver Folk-Roots Festival. Their songs are often heard on TV soundtracks, particularly on BBC nature programmes, and have been nominated for BBC Radio 3 World Music listeners’ awards.

Su Hart says, “It was the amazing bird-like singing that first attracted me, the women will gather before dawn to sing, charm the animals of the forest and ensure the men’s hunt is successful. Song and dance are used by the Baka to healing, for rituals, for keeping the community together and also for pure fun!”

With continued help from Martin and Su, they were then invited to play at local parties, weddings and funerals in Cameroon. After recording their album “Gati Bongo” in 2000, they decided on the name “Baka Gbine” (translated Gbine means ‘help’).

The group includes guitarists Pelembir, Mbeh and Zow, percussionist Masekou, two women – Ybunga and Lekeweh, who bring phenomenal singing to concerts and traditional music.

Giving it back to Baka

Baka Gbine is one of the few groups that ensure that they give back to the culture as much as they take out. Royalties earned from album sales are channeled back to Baka Pygmies through the UK-based charity Global Music Exchange – or as the Baka call it, ‘One Heart’.

This ongoing relationship with the Baka community has helped them gain land rights and recognition as Cameroonian citizens, as well as funding their medical center and a Music House. All these steps help protect the Baka culture, the forest environment and the unique hunter-gatherer way of life.

Roger Harrabin reports-

The biggest threat comes from a road in the rainforest, which has been improved by the Cameroonian government with funding from the European Union.

The World Bank and the African Development Bank refused to finance the upgrade.

They said this would accelerate logging and hunting of endangered species. But the EU distributed the money without doing any environmental assessment.

Steve Gartland, the World Wildlife Fund’s man in Cameroon, says the inevitable is happening now.

“Road building programs tend to bring development to forest areas. Once forest areas are opened, poachers move in, leading to wildlife depletion and deforestation,” he said.

Sixty percent of Cameroon’s forests are already being exploited.

Some firms destroy the forest by bribing their own laws that allow only selected mature trees to be cut. Others seem to play by the book – cutting down only the occasional large tree.

Forester Jean Francois Pagot admits that the most valuable species are being depleted because they are not being replanted.

He says:

“The main reason is the longevity of the trees. Some take two or three hundred years to fully mature – and no timber license lasts that long – so the diversity of the forest is being eroded.”

The Bakas are finding it harder to get other kinds of meat since poachers started using the EU route to sell their catch from the forest reserve.

One Baka said: “They killed the elephants, the gorillas, the chimpanzees, the panthers, the buffaloes, the deer – all in the reserve.”

European Union (EU) taxpayers are funding the conservation of wildlife in this reserve, as well as paying for the road that makes life easier for poachers.

The EU is now funding educational projects against poaching. But hunting wildlife is too lucrative for some to resist. Conservatives say it’s a typical problem caused by the EU’s bailout program. They say aid from Brussels is often mismanaged and hurts people at the sharp end – like Baka.

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A Commercial Attempts To Make You Sad About Animal Abuse A Journey to Remember, a Short Story, Part 1

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A Journey to Remember, a Short Story, Part 1

Vacations always get over sooner than one realizes.

Our vacation is over and has come to an end. But the point of fact is, even to this day Strong, Arindya and Sati couldn’t take this in their stride even as it has driven them furlong into the realm of mortifying nostalgia. Nothing can now bring them back to the real world, or so it seems.

Naturally, to be able to get away from the grime and tussle of life in the city is a jubilant feeling like no other, thought Arindya, himself forlorn in deep nostalgia. Alas, another vacation wasn’t anything nearer to happening anytime soon, so therefore learning to live with it, not surprisingly, is hard enough. But that’s another story though, for another time.

Not satisfied with a nice full week’s fabulous expedition, they were still craving for more. Such was the torrent of their newfound addiction. Arindya’s college buddies Strong and Sati corroborated having come across the same alluring feeling that never let go of them even after the precious trip taken all those years ago – a little more than a decade ago – is now far behind them, lodged in the labyrinths of their collective memory. I guess good friends all think alike.

Our journey, The-Three-Musketeers’ journey, had turned out to be the most special mention of our lives. The journey that we undertook more than a decade ago, at the start of the new millennium: 2001, has always been a high-point of our collective remembrances. We often find ourselves chatting away over cups of hot tea and pakoras, and sitting lazily in the wicker chairs on the sultry terrace bathed in dusky evening moonlight cascading down upon us, and tenderly recalling those wonderful, younger days of our lives.

Burning Driftwood

All the highs and lows of my life’s first friends-only vacation came into my nightly dreams like burning driftwood that always remained aglow. The glowing embers of memories kept on burning in my heart as the early morning sky began to rescue its warm, sweet, hopeful Sun from the mystery pools of the dark night. A new dawn of life then shines upon the horizon ending its nightly escape from the clutches of unrepentant darkness. Golden memories are like warm glowing embers that settle inside the spaces of your heart.

If not for the endless days and nights of consternation that went into planning our first outing – a chance at as they say ‘getting away from it all… ‘ – to get away from the daily grind or routinely boring sort of sclerotic lives we were living, than we would have found ourselves slowly seeped out of life and hung up to dry like washed linen on a wiry receptacle of juvenile delinquency. Thank God we saved ourselves from turning into lazybones and just do nothing. Getting to be peripatetic is such fun.

For Strong, Sati (our very own Kumbhakaran!) and Arindya things were not looking up bright nor were they really leading ship-shape lives. But at long last, when things began falling into their rightful places, they struck wanderlust and simply packed and moved. We sung together in our throaty voices, emulating the mellifluous voice of Kishore Kumar, our made-for-the-occasion friendship song while travelling all the way towards finding freedom and abandon:

To be one with the world…

We are in heaven…

In the lap of Mother Nature…

We are in heaven,

O sweet feeling…

(Arindya wasn’t aware of what was to come upon him when after he returned home from a life altering journey to Nashik. The three wanderlusts have travelled to Aurangabad, Ellora, Nashik, Tryambakeshwar and Shirdi.)

In my heart of hearts, I knew this is it. The beginning of one of those things that maketh a friendship last long, for life long. The vacation was probably meant to do that. We were known to be best of friends and we wanted to give it a touch of emotional appeal: a fine companionship fetching its own little permanent space in our hearts, for memory keepsakes. And that’s what exactly has happened besides Arindya’s falling in love with an elegant stranger.

Speaking of myself, I would say it was our one great outing, more of a pilgrimage to be sure, that had washed up ashore something of a philosophical musing which, oddly, to this day, is still quaking in my unaccustomed heart. In fact, it never let go of me ever. It still quakes inside me. Like a chronically emotional guy I would constantly have myself believe that ‘things’ have ‘changed’ and that there’s no way to find out whether it was for the better or for worse; even as it went on to carve a secret alcove in my private life. Why worse? Because I knew for a reason that my journey, especially from Shirdi to Hyderabad, would turn out to be extraordinarily heart-wrenching for me and I’ll have to live my life heart-broken. So here goes the tale.

All love stories have one thing in common; you have to go against odds to get there. For me the temple town of Tryambakeshwar was the greatest allure of all my life’s worth could hope to get honoured with. So great was the sweet atrocity of the lost love that Arindya thought a tell-all memoir was all that was left to do and relive those moments all over again. His sense of loss, his seemingly decadent life was waiting to be relieved for the purposes of getting it written and ultimately retold in a manner that would bring him some kind of relief. To unburden. You know, the worst feeling in the world is when you know that you both love each other but still you just can’t be together.

That Thing Called Love

Yes, you said it right. Indeed, it was love at first sight! Or was it a false alarm? Or was I being a darnedest fool? Didn’t I have ever had a proper handle on the two thinly-veiled, albeit different, paroxysms: Infatuation or Love? Turns out, I never did. I never knew it clearly enough though, not then, but surely, now I do know. An idea can change your life. But ‘change’, a brooding change at that, (if not the real Love itself) can make a hostile bid on your way of life! A thing of beauty is a joy forever and I have lost ‘something’ on my return trip back home and I am left undone. I know not what to do, how to do in order to be able to get it all back into my life. This is a mystery (I simply call as ‘change’) which failed to warm up to me with any evidentiary feeling of what it has ‘changed’ after all. I am unable to place that thing properly amongst the bare necessities of my life, but am feeling it all right in the empty center of my being with a great sense of remorse.

Is it a kind of passion that strangely afflicts lovesick puppies all the time? Or is it something to get serious about and needs a little personal scrutiny? Was it love? Or was it supposed to be a plain human reaction after all that rushes up your psychic mind some kind of hormonal hara-kiri when you see a beautiful face, a thing of beauty? Whatever it was, it surely came by slowly and beautifully, that old sweet feeling of – I dare say – love? Oh! Is it all about that good old culprit that goes by the sweetest name in the world called Love? If it is so then it will kill me on a regular basis!

It indeed does weird and wonderful things to your heart, I strongly believe that. The ‘change’ that I was so proudly kept repeating over and over again in my mind is known by nothing else but Love. Pure and untouched. Warm and Cozy. Humble and Secure. That thing called Love slowly spread within me like wind-rippled sand in a forlorn, forsaken desert, and little by little the deeper meaning of the word got me totally baffled and confused. Afterwards, I grew very restless on account of such emotional stirrings and I knew not what to do except accept my Destiny as a one-time readymade parcel service from the heavenly counters of The God Almighty. Oh yes! I am eternally thankful for that service!

Call it thrill or the regular drill, the other side of falling-in-love coin is an unchartered territory of emotional warfare. You can deal with it if you think you really can, or else you lose your love and go home in several pieces. Your heart is felled first, always a ready victim of ‘unrequited love’ and longing, considering the circumstances.

After having lingered on such a thought-process in my mind that began materializing like a zany commotion of deep-seated melancholia, I came to realize that it was indeed the mysterious workings of the persuasive power of ‘Love’ that suggested itself by, both subconsciously and feelingly. Furthermore, the matter of such a delicate nature was so tellingly mystifying that I was finding myself shy and uncertain in equal measure to be able to get a comprehending grasp on its unmistakable magical power. I felt I have been given this evident opportunity to figure it all out, and so I will I thought.

Somewhere in my heart Love was being bucolic.

It slowly came to light in Arindya’s minds’ eye that he has been touched by an Angel; that lovely species whom one unstoppably falls in love with. And there was never a name for her, for name didn’t really matter I suppose. As if transfixed I stood there with unblinking eyes looking her way. Realizing my eyes on her, she turned towards me for a fairly long moment and looked up at me. Her eyes, lips, cheeks twinkled a bit; then knowing that I had still devoted my attention on her, her face broke into a saucy smile. After a moment or two, with a calming poise she fervently put her hands together in front of the deity praying.

The clear light of day of the afternoon Sun and the serene October air appeared to be blending together to bathe her beauty with divine loveliness. Heavens opened up their doors and windows and Gods and Goddesses assembled together to have a precious look at their loving creation; even a grant of a tiny glimpse at her would no doubt continue to reassure and comfort them of their blissful eternity and immortality. They were being jealous, apparently! And I merely an Earth-dwelling mortal dared to romanticize the lovely sight I was likewise being treated to, and standing right there transfixed I fell into a trance I never seemed to have got out of. A serious bout of daydreaming crept up my soul that completely stirred my living being! I was being as if zealously ‘guarding’ her from something I could never know of what. Gods and Goddesses? Possibly. They too were looking at her, remember?

Holy Moly! No… ! I remember Adam and Eve’s satanic mistake in the Garden of Eden before they were necked out of unceremoniously!

Indeed, I opened my heart at the main entrance of the temple to yield a precious place for her to step right in. No doubt, I treasured up her memory (including her divine angelic smile) in the deepest vaults of my unbidden heart ever since.

A Journey to Remember

A journey to a holy place can sometimes make you feel profoundly rejuvenated and transformed; especially when you find that the journey you had has rendered a new dimension of poignancy to the basic perception of your own life.

One doesn’t just go and fall in love in a temple. It doesn’t happen that way. But you can’t help it when it happens, can you? Love can subtly suggest itself anytime anywhere, whether in a temple or in a park, or in a train or in a bus. I thought to myself, in my limited understanding, that for me Love will always be something that cannot be ‘set up’ to ‘gain’ something from it, but which is ultimately intensely natural and a thing that can only be felt deep within and treasured for a lifetime. Love makes life live. Love makes you feel enormously optimistic at heart. It makes you smile secretly and satisfyingly in the assuring fact that she is the one made in heaven for you, Then again, when others see you smile without obvious reason, they think you are kind of… ‘myyaaad’. So what is Love after all?

“Love doesn’t mean to win someone,

But it means to lose yourself for someone.

It is not done by the excellence of mind.

But it is done by the purity of heart.”

The great novelist Eric Segal’s immortal lines “love means never having to say you’re sorry” conveys as much of what lovers practically feel all the time but hardly ever can utter in those very words. That’s one way of looking at it. Yet Love manages to get conveyed; if not in words then the eyes do the trick.

All this were personal definitions that Arindya gave to his newfound feelings that were compelling enough for him to freely believe in love at first sight. And this hell of a feeling was met with approval by the Angel he met at the Tryambakeshwar temple in the picturesque district of Nashik.

As apposed to Strong’s suggestion of “infatuation” that I might possibly have been a case of, I had nothing short of The Bard William Shakespeare’s lines to counter his (Strong’s) sly riposte with:

“Let me not to the marriage of true minds

Admit impediments. Love is not love

Which alters when it alteration finds,

Or bends with the remover to remove… “

I have believed that this piece of sonnet explains everything what Love has been, what Love is, and what Love will always be.

When does such a thing affect you? Does it affect you especially when you find yourself atop a precipice of your life and you have nothing better of your own but to claim that it was NOT infatuation? No doubt, she was an exalted species of pure feminine beauty, and I had to hanker after the girl only because of a so-called ‘exterior’ quality on her – her eye-catching beauty? No, I don’t believe so. And that’s exactly what didn’t happen to Arindya at all. People might say different things, for they are, well, people; they are meant to say things: uncharitable or appeasing. But in the end you are the only one to know for sure whether or not you were in love and what really happened to you. For me it was Love all right: Love at first sight, Love for ever and Love forever after.

He knew it was far from anything what some people never really get to acknowledge when someone happens to fall in love. Arindya was not travelling alone but he sure was feeling very lonely for the first time among his friends. He had Strong and Sati for good company, yet why does he have to want for something that was not at all his in the first place? Strong and Sati were great friends, but Arindya’s dilemma was nobody’s business but his own heart’s catch-22 situation to get around and deal with it. Does he have to draw a line somewhere considering that this complicated question, which is writ large on his face like a dark shadow, is showing no sign of leaving him alone? What does Arindya, the chief progenitor of all things immaterial, think about this entire quandary of his own making? Pushing oneself off the precipice, and end of the matter? Flat on the rocks below?

Or finding something to latch on to, setting adrift on a grand new boat of hope, against the time and tide of luckless foreboding, even tackling the normal wages of one’s daily life should become the normal course of action for him? Which one? Which goddamn one? Where is Arindya’s once-glorified “enormously optimistic” dramatic feeling gone? Cut its way off to a better soul, which was better than Arindya’s? Oh well O well, probably, it is here; it is here, somewhere, trampled. Arindya will find it. He will have to.

En Route to Tryambakeshwar via Nashik

Booking a room for us three lads at a local hotel was, thankfully, not a tricky business to deal with. During the tourist season, naturally, getting even a single room is a big trouble, but we eventually found one in a nice hotel not very far from the Maharashtra Tourism office-cum-hotel plaza on the main road. To tell you the truth, we enthusiastic bunch of all-guys travellers did get lily-livered sometimes when faced with indigenous, maddening signboards hung on hotel front offices such as “Sorry! Rooms Not Available”, “No Rooms”, “All Full”, “Houseful” or even “No Vacancy”, as if we were looking for jobs! We have been pretty much up to facing whatever challenge was popping in front of us. But we sure disliked these ‘unwelcome’ signboards where ever we spotted one.

No wonder Sati (our very own Kumbhakaran!) was the one who went to the bathroom first to bathe and spill over some cologne fragrance under his tropical rainforest-like armpits, and I and Strong smiled sheepishly at each other to resolve who would go next up! Sati’s childlike enthusiasm to always be the first one to use our hotel’s bathroom was no less legendary than Strong’s preference for window seat whether in bus or in train! I was more like a confused mute, a concerned spectator sandwiched between their ever-amusing comedy of errors (always-use-first bathroom and window-seat preferences included). Must say I hardly ever made any attempt to get out of my reverie, for watching them do their own thing in the pocket-sized, beige-toned hotel room was hilarious!

And yes, not to forget Sati’s insatiable penchant for rounding off his meal with a huge bowl of curd-rice was laughed out loud over Strong’s all-weather-always-better garam garam idly, sambar, rasam and rice preference, never mind curd-rice. I didn’t exactly dream of McDonald’s or Domino’s platters, but my mouth did remember to flood at this unexpected suggestion of a well-tasted hemlock that I have drunk not very long ago! Umm.

Before we embarked upon this journey, Strong let out a secret of his to me that if he doesn’t eat rice in the dinner, he doesn’t get sound sleep at night! I nodded: possibly! Of course, all three went out to dinner and sat in a vegetarian-only restaurant to eat a belly full of sona masoori rice.

Our first leg of journey was a long one to complete. We travelled from Aurangabad to Ellora caves and back. After a night’s intervention, we alighted from long-dead King Aurangzeb’s kingdom Aurangabad and traveled in a MSRTC (state-owned local bus service) bus to Nashik’s central bus station via several unmanned railway crossings, roadside shacks, and quiet villagers, who faithfully lived with their precious cows, hens, cocks, goats, and buffaloes and bulls, even an occasional donkey or two. I spotted several cows grazing and mooing blissfully in the grassy meadows; the hens playing with their tiny chicks in the open yards and goats braying in the vicinity of their human caretakers. The bus ride was bumpy but we enjoyed the bumps with shoulders colliding with the passengers seated next to us; we slammed, banged, crashed all at once into the front seats knocking our breaths out of our lungs, and bounced several inches off our scruffy seats before our heads bashed on the overhead bunkers pounding on our senses.

Apart from all that bumpy encounters we experienced, our bus ride to Nashik was pleasant enough. In fact, in Aurangabad, though a nice little place to visit, we hardly found any other option in the name of good inter-city bus travel apart from the one we decided upon for our journey. That was the year 2001; things might have changed a lot now. These days, when we find each and every city of our country taking a turn for good economically, old things being replaced with the new and how: city squares, shopping centers, fine dining restaurants and all coming up like crazy. I am sure Aurangabad city too had transformed itself now into a fine tourist destination that it was always bound to be.

Strong and Sati (our very own Kumbhakaran!) were jousting with each other to look at the seat occupied next to a hulking woman travelling with her fair and fine-looking daughter. They (Strong and Sati, that is) craned their heads, flashing their gazes at the object of their attention, tried several tricks up their sleeves to get her attracted to them, but all their actions came to a naught. She was far ahead in her own dream world but apart from looking at their general direction, she was, apparently, way out of their league. And Arindya, he had already gazed at her for a moment longer than necessary, tried to be really interesting and all that, but it seemed that he was met with a rebuff.

The bus ride through the countryside had us totally rattled and disheveled, but we took no notice of that. We were on a mission here and totally up and about to accomplish it, so who has the time, you know, for things that don’t matter much.

After reaching the central bus station of Nashik, we took a bus to the great Tryambakeshwar Temple. Tryambakeshwar (Tryambake�vara) is located around 28 kilometers from the urban center of Nashik, tucked away into the pacific greenery of the wonderful countryside of Nashik. The ancient Hindu temple is situated at the bottom of the Bramhagiri mountains, where the river Godavari is said to have originated from.

The first day of the October month was agog with beautiful indulgences of the blushing cottony clouds ambling across the blue expanse of the Gods above…

I still remember the shimmering countryside meadows sparkling under the veil of moon-struck light illuminating everything from the sky above. I recollect the face of a serene-faced girl with lotus-like eyes I had never seen before or ogled at. Dressed in a soft yellow salwar with tiny ashen-grey polka-dot like flowers spread all over her lovely attire that greatly embellished her graceful countenance; she looked a million bucks. Without hesitation I resolved that she might be the very embodiment of a dream-like, unheard-of Angel that hardly often do we ever get to see in other normal circumstances. It tugged and pulled at my heart when she found my eager, will-you-be-mine eyes and winked impishly. She winked her huge eye-lashes at me. At that moment my heart forgot to beat. I saw her at the Tryambakeshwar Temple offering prayers and trying to hand over her casket of coconut, red kumkum, agarbatti and yellow Marigold flowers to the Sanskrit-chanting purohit, entreating him to break the coconut and flowers be put at the jyotirlinga of the presiding deity Lord Shiva.

Leaving Tryambakeshwar was hard enough for Arindya. He realized that he has fallen in love, really hopelessly and leaving the pilgrimage town of Trymbakeshwar meant bidding goodbye, farewell, and adieu to her, perhaps forever.

While journeying back on a bus to Nashik, my plain lunatic heart began to thump furiously at the thought of not having to see her ever again, perhaps, never in this lifetime. No wonder my days of being an eternal optimist were gone. What am I to do now without even an ounce of it? What a life I have!

The chimera of optimism anyway doesn’t work in such a circumstance, does it? I had no way of knowing her, and finding her again at the same spot is a foregone conclusion even if I come back looking for her. Life doesn’t treat us that way. It isn’t that easy to get excited about. It has its own exigencies to care about first. Besides there are so many other unknowable factors that come into play, whether you like it or not almost all of them will be pitted against your wish and will. Mankind is always left in the lurch to enthuse themselves by indulging in the mucky discourses of defunct challenges and useless competition. No wonder, in a dog-eat-dog world such is the twisted fury of God’s own creation!

I can’t even expect a ‘co-incidence’ thing to take place and then somehow I come rushing back to find her. Life, it seems, has its own book of destiny to keep. The thing is a brave man makes his own destiny, but the question is: Was I brave enough to be undertaking a task of going back to Tryambakeshwar and find her – all by myself? Perhaps, I might as well just do it. There is after all a wee bit chance, an opening, for anyone who knows where to look and how to look. But Arindya could not possibly have fathomed that secret, for he was not in Destiny’s good books. If passion is what it appears to be in Arindya, then the desire to find her, to see her, to touch her, to embrace her, will always remain a desire, no matter how vaguely life leaks away thinking about her. I couldn’t believe what I was feeling for her. I was dying inside to touch her, hold her. Never will come that moment when I can get close to fulfilling it. I am not in a position, Oh! Dear Lotus-Eyed Angel, to fulfill that passionate desire of mine… It will stay that way.

Eternal passion!

Eternal pain!

Not in this lifetime, my love. Not in this Hell that I am being bludgeoned through and still managing to survive with my besieged chest full of memories. As far as Arindya’s future prospect is concerned, howsoever well-deserved or even if there was one in the first place, it had dead-ended, stopped dead in its path, prematurely. That has come to be known as his portion of sad destiny ever since!

If there is any hope to know what she thinks about our little, private rendezvous at that old Shiva Temple, I would drop everything and go rush in her general direction. On second thoughts, that won’t be necessary because I understand for the same sacrosanct reason that she understands: we have been destined and decreed to be together only in our next life, not in this one. Compromise appears to be the darker side of man’s Destiny, full of twists and turns and blind corners. Such is God’s will. Take it or leave it.

Love Is a Sad Song

I remember how the silvery white moon had shone from high above wandering somberly in the largely cloudless, inky October sky like a loving soliloquist soul, peeping at us lovingly through the tinted windows of the bus we were travelling in, wishing us a silent goodbye after we reluctantly bid adieu to the temple town of His Holiness Shirdi Sai Baba.

“I swear to you

I will always be there for you.

There’s nothing I won’t do.

I promise you,

All my life I will live for you;

We will make it through… “

Then out of nowhere a forgotten strain of an old Hindi song decanted into my mind. I was instinctively humming it aloud in my heaving chest thinking about the lotus-eyed girl I saw in the sanctum sanctorum of the great temple:

“Dil ke aasman pe gam ki ghata chayee

Ayee ayee ayee teri yaad ayee…

Teri yaad main sari duniya bhulayee

Ayee ayee ayee teri yaad aye… “

The tail-end of the journey was a heart-pounding experience for all three of us. Strong, Sati and Arindya were still awake and far away from any sign of wanting to get some sleep. All that trekking, hiking, climbing mountains and forts and circling historic temples in faraway places like Aurangabad, Ajanta-Ellora Caves, then visiting Panchavati and walking on the streets of Nashik did not bog us down. We were fatigued no doubt, but kept up our tempo in full gear. Strong and Sati were still afresh with keen energy and so was Arindya.

“Oh figure about those younger years

There was only you and me

We were young and wild and free

Now nothing can take you away from me

Even down that road before”

End of Part 1

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