10 Animals That Have Come Back From Extinction Bright Side Kenaf – The Environmental Entrepreneurship Powerhouse

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Kenaf – The Environmental Entrepreneurship Powerhouse

Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus L.is a warm season annual closely related to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.).

Kenaf can be used as a domestic supply of cordage fiber in the manufacture of rope, twine, carpet backing and burlap. Research, in the early 1940s, focused on the development of high-yielding anthracnose-resistant varieties, cultural practices and harvesting machinery.

During the 1950s, kenaf was identified as a promising fiber source for paper pulp. Kenaf fibers have been processed into high quality newsprint and bond paper.

Although kenaf is usually considered a fiber crop, research indicates that it has high protein content and, therefore, is a potential livestock feed. Crude protein in kenaf leaves ranged from 21 to 34 percent, stalk crude protein ranged from 10 to 12 percent, and whole-plant crude protein ranged from 16 to 23 percent.

Kenaf can be ensilaged effectively, and it has satisfactory digestibility with a high percentage of digestible protein. Digestibility of dry matter and crude proteins in kenaf feeds ranged from 53 to 58 percent, and 59 to 71 percent, respectively Kenaf meal, used as a supplement in a rice ration for sheep, compared favorably with a ration containing alfalfa meal.

In addition to the use of kenaf for cordage, paper pulp and livestock feed researchers have investigated its use as poultry litter and animal bedding, bulking agent for sewage sludge composting and as a potting soil amendment. Additional products include automobile dashboards, carpet padding, corrugated medium, as a “substitute for fiberglass and other synthetic fibers,” building materials (particle boards of various densities, thicknesses, and fire and insect resistances), absorbents, textiles and as fibers in extraction molded plastics.

Kenaf is in the Hibiscus family, is cousin to Cotton and Okra, and is currently grown mainly in China and India for its high strength fibers. Nobody has focused on kenaf for food because the leaves did not taste good. However, a unique strand known as Whitten Kenaf was developed by the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station and released for general use in 2005. These leaves taste quite good, a sort of lemony, Cajun taste. This variety of kenaf has wide cotton shaped leaves, can be used for food, has been grown for food in Haiti for 3 years where they love the taste and have developed their own recipes. The leaves, seeds, stalk and core are all separate harvests. The result is multiple uses and benefits.

The kenaf plant is one of the fastest growing plants in the world, much faster than local weeds, so it requires minimal soil preparation and is easy to plant and maintain. Because the soil does not have to be tilled, maximum microorganism density is maintained and chemical fertilizers are not needed Kenaf is an extremely efficient plant that uses minimal resources, with exceptional output. Kenaf plants grow up to 20 feet tall. One acre can produce as much as 20 tons of biomass in 6 months.

Low Water Usage

The stalk and roots have the ability to store water like a camel, so the plant performs extremely well, even in arid/drought conditions where most other plants fail. When planted before rainy season, no follow-up watering is needed. This absolves the need for expensive irrigation and water rights issues.

Leaves Feed Humans

Whitten Kenaf leaves are delicious and high in protein, up to 34%. It is regularly eaten in Haiti in soups, salads, boiled like spinach or added to rice. Kenaf can be eaten within 10 days of planting, when just 18 inches tall, and the leaves and stems can be continually harvested from that point forward. Each planted seed has the potential of creating 80 servings of edible food. Therefore, it can be used as a high protein starvation aversion crop. In fact, 2,000 people in Mirebalais, Haiti used kenaf to keep from starving in 2009.

In Haiti, several kenaf leaf recipes have been developed. Seeds Feed Humans can be ground into wonderful gluten-free flour for baking. In Mirebalais, Haiti they use kenaf flour for several recipes. 1/2 pound of kenaf flour can make 20 to 30 pan sized breakfast pancakes.

There is a long tradition of using kenaf for food in India to produce gongura. There are many recipes and photos of foods based on gongura on the internet.

Money Crop

Kenaf seeds are sold by the pound, which consists of about 20,000 seeds. 1 pound of kenaf seed currently costs $4.00 USD. In poor soil conditions, 1 kenaf plant produces about 200 seeds. 10 acres of poor soil can grow 10,000 lbs of kenaf seed per growing season, representing $40,000 USD of income. Florida research farmer Harry Long, in cooperation Mr. Loftus, came up with an organic formula where they yielded 11,382 seeds per plant!! It takes about 1 year from planting time before local farmers can harvest and sell the seeds as a money crop. They can sell the stalks as firewood at that time, too.

Animal Feed:

Leaves can be dried and turned into different sized pellets as high protein feed for rabbits, fish, chickens, and goats. Rabbit meat is really wonderful for you, being lower in fats and cholesterol and higher in protein than beef. Commercial grade rabbit farming and fish farming (tilapia) can be sustained with kenaf pellets. (The US currently imports $750M of tilapia per year from China.)

A backyard farming method is also being perfected for small scale production of rabbits, fish, chickens, and goats, on small plots of land using home grown kenaf pellets, virtually eliminating feed costs. This provides meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy products for family consumption and for sale/export. This could be a self sustaining source of food and income for the poorest of the poor. They can make $25 per week growing and picking their own kenaf for animal feed, starting within 2 months of planting the seed. This doesn’t even take into consideration the income they can receive from selling their livestock.

Cooking Fuel:

Cooking Fuel: The kenaf stalk has a heat value comparable to burning pine. A low cost, safe, smokeless Kenaf Stove has been designed for high efficiency cooking and bio-char (a form of charcoal) production. The Kenaf Stove burns kenaf or wood in an oxygen deprived environment, resulting in a much cleaner, no smoke fire where the fuel lasts MUCH longer. 4 families can have a year’s supply of fuel from a football field size of planted kenaf. When the air supply to the stove is shut off, bio-char is created. Making bio-char from kenaf and putting it into the soil as a soil amendment replenishes the soil and functions as a fertilizer and a soil stabilizer.

This recapturing of waste lands can halt deforestation and desertification as people use kenaf instead of collecting wood for cooking. Any bio-char not used as fertilizer can be molded into charcoal briquettes. The Kenaf Stove can also use grass, waste paper, etc. to make bio-char which is then made into charcoal briquettes. Families can then sell the charcoal for income.

Carbon Sequestration

One acre of kenaf can sequester 8 times as much carbon as an acre of evergreen trees. One acre of kenaf absorbs approximately 10 to 20 tons of Carbon during photosynthesis. When used as cooking fuel on the Kenaf Stove, an additional 5 tons of bio-char is made. When put into the earth, this bio-char permanently stores the carbon in a beneficial way, in the ground.

Kenaf is carbon negative, when you put the bio-char into the soil. If we can change from coal to kenaf for making power, we can sequester enough CO2 per year to completely solve the anthropogenic effect on climate change, impacting global warming

Electricity Generation

Inventor C. Morrison has developed a biomass power plant that can use kenaf biomass to create a hydrogen/carbon monoxide gas called syngas. These gasses are sufficient to run an electrical generator. One power plant can service an entire rural village. The biomass yield for an acre of kenaf is 3 to 4 times higher than for trees. 50 acres of kenaf can fuel 1 power plant, perpetually.

This system is self-contained and poses no air quality, water quality, soil degradation, odor, or noise issues. There are no unique construction or installation requirements. It is as simple to operate as any household appliance and is small enough to fit on a trailer (see picture) or be mounted in a small building. The electricity not used by the rural village can be sold to the electrical power grid as an additional source of income. Imagine a constant supply of electricity being supplied to urban centers by rural villages, this in nations plagued by regular brownouts and blackouts. The only by-product from gasification is a sellable bio-char ash that can be used as a soil amendment for growers.

Organic Fertilizer

An inexpensive organic fertilizer that can be made locally, using bio-char, is being developed. Bio-char acts as a home for microbial activity. This can be used to enhance soil quality even in the poorest of soils, without using dangerous and expensive chemical fertilizers Bio-char as a fertilizer has been known to double plant growth. This will increase the yields and profitability per square meter of the kenaf plants and other fruits and vegetables grown in subsequent years. This will lead to a virtuous cycle of increasing economic prosperity from year to year, using land resources currently viewed as unproductive.

Kenaf bio-char can even be used in treating human bodily waste to convert the nitrogen into productive forms, turning a waste product into a resource. This would improve sanitary conditions and would have been useful during the recent Cholera outbreak in Haiti. 5 gallon buckets can be used as toilets and when combined with biochar, within 6 months the poo and urine can be safely used as fertilizer. If 2 billion people were to use these toilets, then 2 billion pounds of fertilizer would be generated every day. Over time we could even recapture the deserts.

Textiles The bast (thin outer bark) of the kenaf plant is a high strength fiber used to make burlap bags, plastics, industrial and commercial fabrics, cordage, rope and twine.

Paper

Kenaf paper has superior fiber content compared to wood-based paper products, and it takes far less time to grow kenaf compared to trees.

Building Materials

The fibrous outer core of plant stems can be used to make composites, polymers, binders, biodegradable plastic, injection molded panels, engineered wood panels, substitute for carbon, glass, other mineral fibers, fibrous reinforcement of plaster, cement, and wall boards. Construction The Styrofoam-like inner core of the kenaf plant can be used for animal bedding, kitty litter, municipal wastewater treatment, and for oil spill cleanup on land or at sea. In conjunction with recycled wood and recycled concrete, the kenaf core can also be used to make a light weight yet very strong cement block that has great insulation properties and is virtually fireproof. These blocks can be used to build single family homes and multi-story buildings, without using power tools.

A self-sustaining environmental home has been designed using kenaf and other technologies, at a cost between $5,000 and $10,000 (depending on conditions, sewage and electrical requirements and sizes) per house. These homes will provide for clean water, housing, electricity, and sanitation. Intended as a developing nation starter home, construction is so simple that kids can assemble a house in 1 day< and a family can easily add-on additional rooms and rent them out as a source of extra income. This makes it possible for single mothers to become financially independent without having to work outside the home. The societal implications of this are staggering

De-urbanization

This is a side effect from effectively leveraging kenaf as a way to provide food, shelter, and a living wage, in a rural setting. People living in the city slums can move back to their rural origins and actually provide for themselves, sustainably. The Whitten variety of Hibiscus cannabinus L.,is a good tasting kenaf that has the potential to serve as a food source in many countries.

Kenaf is a plant that has the potential to change the world. It is a very old plant used by mankind. Throughout the Bible you read about sackcloth. Sackcloth is made from kenaf. Only royalty was allowed to wear linen or cotton. The poor grew kenaf, spun it and made their clothes from kenaf. They made ropes and cordage from kenaf.

Many people want to help the environment. Many people are trying to find ways to lower the greenhouse gases that are heating up our world. We worry about the Arctic ice melting and the loss of the polar bear. We are all concerned with the more and more violent weather patterns, the floods, earthquakes and volcanoes erupting. We don’t want to see sea levels rise and inundate our coastal cities. But what can one person do?

Some people have gotten involved with tree planting projects. Tree planting projects are great. They sequester quite a lot of carbon. The problem is, the people who are involved are operating in what I call an incomplete transaction. The people who have tree planting projects get the resources they need and you get the satisfaction of knowing you are doing something good but there is no return for you donation.

What if there were a way to do something really good for the environment, something that sequesters more carbon than trees…and at the same time it offers you a payback? Yes, that’s what I mean. A return on your investment. Sequester carbon, help the environment and earn money at the same time? There is a plant called kenaf that sequesters more carbon than any other species on the Earth. One acre of kenaf sequesters as much carbon as 8 acres of fast growing pine trees.

Kenaf Could Change the World If We All Got Involved In Planting It And Using It. Here’s What Kenaf Can Do:

1. Sequester More Carbon Per Acre Than Any Other Plant

2. Be Food For Humans Anywhere In The World Where There Is Hunger

3. Make Excellent Feed For Livestock including Backyard Fish Ponds

4. The Stalks Can Be Used As Firewood

5. Make Biochar For Fertilizing The Earth Organically

6. Make Beautiful Cloth That Can Be Used For Clothing And Industrial Use

7. Make Biocomposites That Can Be Used For Car Interiors

8. Be Used To Generate Electricity

9. Make A Better Quality Paper Than Pine Trees And Be Ready For Use In 6 Months Instead Of Years

10. Have Seeds That Can Be Made Into Gluten Free Flour

11. Have Seeds That Can Be Made Into A Cosmetic Oil

12. Have Leaves That Make Excellent Potherbs

13. Can Be Cut Back Many Times And When It Regrows It Produces More Food Or Feed

14. Grows Faster Than Just About Any Plant

15. Does Not Use A Lot Of Water – It Grows In Somalia

16. BioChar Made From Kenaf Can Treat Human Wastes And Turn It Into Fertilizer

17. The Inner Core Is Excellent For Animal Bedding Without Dust

18. Many Kinds Of Building Materials Can Be Made From The Bast Fiber

19. The Inner Core Fiber Can Be Made Into A Filler For A Lightweight Cement Block

20. Extracted Kenaf seed oil can be used as a bio-fuel for Diesel engines

This plant could feed people in poor countries. This plant could sequester more carbon everywhere in the world. This plant could provide biological fertilizers. And the plant has so many uses.

We need to build an organization made up of people who want to see less hunger, more firewood, inexpensive homes for poor people in developing countries. The people we seek to connect with are probably doing something green in their lives. They would just like to find a way to make it profitable while being more Green. In other words, having a complete transaction.

There is a need to find people dedicated to planting kenaf and has already developed marketing vehicles for the kenaf fiber and other products. We are actively researching vegetable dyes, making kenaf fabric water repellent with environmentally sound materials. We have plans to make back packs, tote bags, and household items from kenaf. And we are already getting ready to develop our own kenaf handmade paper project in Belize.

We invite you to invest in your kenaf planting as a member of our community.

Kenaf is the environmental entrepreneurship powerhouse with multiple profit centers.

for you. It is not a graduate course in a university. It is a down to earth program.

The climate change is getting worse. But we now have a means to take control of our environmental problems and do something to ameliorate them.

We on this planet are in a battle for our survival as a species.From time to time on this very active planet we have extinction level events (ELE). Most of them are the results of acts of nature. But we are creating our own extinction level event (ELE). When the death rock fell from the sky and wiped out the dinosaurs, they had no warning. They didn’t know what hit them. But our extinction level is happening slowly enough that we can take action. We are sentient, we have our minds and our hands. We can take command of what is happening on our world. What can I do you say? We say, “Plant kenaf.”

We can plant kenaf or invest in someone else planting it. We can stop global warming.

We can create businesses to make money for you and other investors while you help remove carbon from the atmosphere.We can all actively participate in the real war.

THE WAR TO REGENERATE OUR WORLD.

It’s time to get our planet back to normal levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. One acre of kenaf sequesters as much carbon dioxide as 8 acres of fast growing pine trees.

YOU CAN EVEN DO THIS: Planting a small kenaf plot in your garden can help take carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and contribute to the battle against global warming. You could use the leaves for high protein greens, and chickens love it, too. Use the seeds for gluten-free flour, and the stalks for dust-free bedding for animals.

Planting one manzana of kenaf in a tropical country, as an investor or as a farmer, could net you thousands of dollars in monetary return, and sequester tons of carbon dioxide, providing you an environmental return.

Kenaf was used for rope and for making sackcloth 6,000 years ago. Its new uses include biocomposites being manufactured for Toyota which plans to make all its car interiors with kenaf.

Kenaf combined with recycled plastic makes an excellent building material as well as raw material for industrial use.

And, at the same time with it high protein content, it can feed the hungry of the world, people and animals.Kenaf can replace tree cutting as it makes tree free paper, can be used for people food as a potherb or gluten free flour, livestock feed, paper, biochar, carbon sequestration, fabric and biocomposites

This ecofriendly plant that has the potential to create a successful green business for you. Grow kenaf in your backyard or in a large plantation.

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10 Animals That Deliver The Most Painful Stings And Bites 10 Essential Oils and Their Benefits

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10 Essential Oils and Their Benefits

Almost everyone has heard of essential oils, but how many of us really know what their uses are beyond the popular aromatherapy. Some of these oils are used in processing natural soaps and lotions partially due to the way they smell or other benefits. Just the scent of some essential oils may relax or put one in a better mood. Here are 10 of the most popular oils and what their uses. Read on, you may be surprised.

Lavender is a wonderful scent. Lavender essential oil is said to induce relaxation. Other topical uses include, soothing skin rashes to minor burns. Adding a few drops to a bath is known to induce relaxing sleep and clear the sinuses. Lavender is great when used in the laundry for eliminating odors.

Tea Tree oil is one essential oil that should be in every medicine cabinet. This is one oil that you must never take internally, but used topically is amazing for eczema, acne, nail fungus, warts and bug bites. Try putting a drop or two in your shampoo to treat dandruff and even head lice. Keep fleas away from pets by putting drops around your pet’s bed.

Lemon oil is great for everything from furniture polish to killing bad breath germs. This is another great oil for relieving stress and it makes an effective hand sanitizer if mixed with aloe gel.

Peppermint oil is great in tea to ease an upset tummy. Try mixing a few drops with some coconut oil and applying to topically to relieve cramps. A drop or two will back a tick out and off your skin, and cool hot tired feet. Use a little in your mop bucket to clean floors and leave a fresh scent. Put a drop wherever you see signs of rodents or spiders, they will not return.

Eucalyptus oil eases shingles, asthma attacks and fibromyalgia pain. Add some to an oil diffuser in your bathroom to eliminate germs and offensive odors.

Clove oil is very effective to relieve toothaches. It has been used for many centuries for many mouth related pain. It is also great for relieving athlete’s foot, prickly heat, earaches, mosquito repellent and even bruises.

Chamomile is soothing. As a tea it is often prescribed to relax when nerves are on edge. As an oil it is great for dry skin, dermatitis, bee stings and cuts or bruises. Try putting a few drops in doorways to keep insects out of your home.

Frankincense has been used for many years for keeping the dead safe it is also a great remedy for acne, warts, scar tissue and even a stress or migraine headache. Keep insects away and relieve a panic attack.

Grapefruit is not only a healthy, tasty fruit, it is also a great essential oil. Used topically it is great for cellulite, swollen lymph nodes and migraines. Mixed with baking soda it is also a refreshing deodorant. Much like lemon oil, the citrus oil is a great anti-bacterial that is used for cleaning and freshening all around the house.

Oregano oil is gaining popularity as an anti-inflammatory, anti-biotic and an anti-fungal. It can also relieve pain from fibromyalgia, cysts and tendonitis. Around the home use diluted as an antibacterial spray for any germy surface. It also repels bugs.

There are many more great essential oils that will alleviate many ailments, pains and even kills germs. Oils have been used for centuries to cure what ails, many years before modern medicine. Most are just as effective, or more so in curing illness and killing germs.

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10 Animals That Can Only Be Found In The Philippines 10 Ways to Save Nature

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10 Ways to Save Nature

Your mother is always forgiving, but do not take her for granted. If you commit hundred crimes she may throw you out. Same applies to Mother Nature. She is no longer ready to accept any more human atrocity.

Mother Nature has been demonstrating her anger in various ways like global warming, climate change, flash floods and droughts, cloud bursts and water scarcity, earthquakes and many more in varied magnitudes. Humans, selfish as ever in their ways, fail to understand or do not want to understand.

Pollution has been the major cause of nature’s wrath since industrial revolution two hundred years ago. Thanks to fossil fuel burning like that of coal, oil and natural gas in big factories, heavy urbanization leading to tremendous motor vehicle traffic, steady annihilation of greenery and natural resources, commercialization of forests and parks and such a chain of follies our mother is gasping for breath.

Now trying to think about saving nature we must understand the basics. First, the ozone layer which protects us from the harmful rays of the sun. This gas in beneficial if it resides in the stratosphere, if it comes down to the earth’s surface it starts adding to global warming. Chemical gases and pollution are harming the ozone layer to a point of consternation.

Second, the greenhouse gases. If these gases remain at normal level our earth is kept comfortably warm for all the inhabitants. But the enhanced greenhouse emission caused by excessive human activities is not normal and it leads to abnormal warming with results in higher sea levels, more rainfall and floods and severe droughts too. Most of these harmful greenhouse gases damage the ozone layer.

Third, the global warming which is a result of the mix of damaged ozone and enhanced greenhouse effect. Melting of glaciers follow leading to fluctuations in climate and natural disasters. Apart from this, if such pollutants are allowed to perforate the ozone there will be 19 million more cases of cancer and 129 million more cases of eye cataracts, scientists warn.

Lastly, our depleting reserve of precious natural resources like water, wildlife, marine world and of course trees and forests. Green plants are ideal for absorbing harmful gases and a green cover contributes directly to Mother Nature’s eco balance.

With this basic knowledge we can now list out the ten ways to save our mother planet-the only place in the endless universe where we can still live happily.

Love Trees: Always keep a habit of planting trees be it your locality or society campus or even your living room. Initiate and organize tree planting campaigns with your fellow residents.

Love Animals: Let the animals be part of the natural habitat or the wild. Never buy or eat exotic and endangered animals or patronize products made out of animal parts.

Love the Three R’s: You should put the mantra in your heart-reduce recycle and reuse. Reduce your requirements to exactly what you need. This will result in reduced garbage and your combined action can relieve pressure on the municipal authorities to dispose garbage. You perhaps know that your garbage while broken into pieces produces harmful greenhouse gases. Reuse all items that are still working or can be repaired. Recycle all products like newspapers, plastic and glass items and scraps by selling them in the nearby junkyard.

Dispose of Garbage Properly: Try to separate your organic waste from other non-perishable waste. You can have a compost pit maybe in your back garden or terrace to deposit all your organic waste and finally make it into a fertilizer the utility of which you would know soon. Never allow your waste to smell bad, because foul-smelling waste means release of greenhouses gases into air.

Be a Farmer: Do not get scared. It is not so difficult. You can do it in your backyard or even in your terrace with permission or cooperation of your neighbors. Apart from plants and flowers you can also start cultivating vegetables for which your compost fertilizer would come very handy. Remember, such practices are no longer novelties.

Stick to Local Products: Get all your required products from your locality as far as possible. This will prevent transportation and packaging which in turn will contribute to less burning of energy thus preventing release of harmful gases.

Identify Your Polluting Acts: Some of the things you use could be polluting agents. Your car, refrigerator, foam blowers, fire extinguishers and others pollute environment if overused. So be moderate in their use.

Do not be a Thrower: Never indulge in throwing things out of your windows or your balconies. This could include anything from garbage pieces to broken scientific products like thermometers, barometers and others that contain mercury. Mercury is poisonous and so harmful.

Household Chores: Always be devoted to your cherished household chores. Prevent wastage of water, save electricity whenever possible, do not burn plastic or waste, do not use colored plastic bags which are already banned in many countries, walk to the local market with your normal cloth bag and so on. Set examples and you will definitely have followers.

Be Aware and Spread Awareness: Be a part of all community campaigns for environment protection in your society, locality and city. Oppose any attempt to construct buildings or super markets in public grounds or parks. Oppose any attempt to cut trees or shave off hillocks. Oppose malpractices by others even if s/he is your best neighbor or friend. Follow international conferences on greenhouse emission rules and other environmental issues and share your knowledge with others.

If all of us join hands we can still save nature and our mother planet.

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1.How Does An Animal Get Its Energy Describe The Process Energies Awakening Part I – Understanding Universal Energy

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Energies Awakening Part I – Understanding Universal Energy

Energy is the foundation of all that exists. Every physical, emotional, mental and spiritual aspect of every dimension is energy. Energy is the lifeforce of the creator that pulses through creation. Everything, be it physical, mental, emotional or spiritual, is an identifiable vibration of energy. There is an energy that is the identifying signature of a granite rock. Marble would be within the same vibratory field but in different vibration. We could use the example of the varying hues of red. Energy is eternal and cannot be destroyed. All the energy that ever was, all the energy that will ever be is the same. It can be changed but not destroyed.

The most simplistic definition of life is when an energy has the ability to transform its own energy or other energies. It is active rather than passive. A rock cannot change itself, it can be cracked by the pressure of water droplets turned to ice. It can be melted by the flow of lava. A tree has its own signature vibration, it can be destroyed and burned but it also has the ability to grow, to take the energy of life, transform it into a photosynthetic process creating a gaseous exchange. Life energy is the ability of certain energetic characteristics, such as translation, reaction, transmutation and transformation. Translation is the utilization and consumption of energies other than itself, a plant absorbing minerals from the soil, an animal eating food. Reaction is the ability to interact with a living organism’s environment, the ability of a flower to follow the sun or a flower that closes in the evening. In higher forms of living creatures, it would be instinct. Transmutation is a living organism’s ability to change its own form, such as growth or metamorphosis. Transformation is the ability to recreate itself be it the regeneration of cells, the growth of new leaves in the spring or the more sophisticated reproductive process.

A by-product or a result of every energy is consciousness. A rock has consciousness. A tree has consciousness. A bird has consciousness. It is obvious that the consciousness is varied between them. Each has its own energetic signature. A rock, in its vibration, has the consciousness of a rock and will always have the consciousness of a rock unless its energy is changed by some outside force. A bird has the consciousness of a bird, it will always have the consciousness of a bird. Does a bird that has died have the consciousness of a bird? Is it still a bird? The lifeforce is gone. The energetic signature of a bird is inclusive of characteristics such as certain chemicals like calcium, iron, proteins and amino acids. But without the lifeforce, it is not a bird.

The higher the energetic vibration, the greater the consciousness. The greater the consciousness, the greater the lifeforce. Humanity is all of the above. They are a complex combination of innate energies and lifeforce with one important difference, its vibratory rate of energy is so high that it is able to define and interpret energy. All other less vibratory energies must work within predetermined laws of nature and, intrinsically, respond in harmony and balance with divine consciousness.

Universal or divine energy pulsing through creation, as blood through a body, sustains all creation. The rock absorbs the vibration of rock to sustain itself as a rock. It is the collective consciousness of a rock. Universal energy could also be related to radio waves sent from the source throughout creation. The flower receives that energy and utilizes it in alignment with the consciousness of a flower. It cannot choose not to be a flower. It does not know that it is a flower. Humanity is not only a receiver and transmitter of energy, as is all creation, it must receive energy for it to exist. It must transmit energy for you to know that it exists. Humanity has the ability to receive energy and to define it before it transmits it, that is the definition of the creator. Humanity’s ability to define energy and, therefore, to create other than itself is what is meant when it is said that humanity is made in the image and likeness of the Creator. This fact is what gives humanity dominion, not dominance, over their world. With self-recognition and the realization that humanity knows that it knows, it enables them to create other than that which is in divine harmony and balance.

This ability to interpret energy is freewill. With this privilege comes responsibility and to understand our responsibility, we must understand the immutable laws of energy:

1) energy is always present, eternal and cannot be destroyed only changed

2) energy attracts like energy

3) energy is able to maintain and replicate itself

4) energy is intelligent

The understanding and practical applications of these truths will allow you, the creator, to transform, transmute and translate any energy in your reality to create what you desire. The utilization of energy is a skill that when understood provides the user a clear path to what they desire to create. As any skill, it takes practice, it is like learning to drive a car. When you understand the physical laws of motion and inertia, traction, centrifugal force and master them, you are able to drive your car safely and with ease to your desired destination. Imagine learning to drive the car from the moment you were born and you had to learn these laws, shall we say, on the run. In some ways that is what life is about and we can judge how well we have driven our life and how well we have understood the laws of energy by looking at our creation.

Therefore, by understanding the laws of energy and their practical application in our lives, our journey will be smooth and we will reach our destination with ease.

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1 Yr Old Puppy Ate Some Of A Dead Animal List of Pus and Mucus-Forming Foods

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List of Pus and Mucus-Forming Foods

The word “mucus” is from the Latin mucus which means “slime, mold, snot, etc.” Mucus refers to a thick, viscous, slippery discharge that is comprised of dead cells, mucin, inorganic salts, water, and exfoliated cells. It also refers to the slimy, sticky, viscous substance left behind by mucus-forming foods in the body after ingestion. The word “pus” is from late 14c. Latin “pus” (related to puter [putrid] “rotten”), from Proto-Indo-European*pu- compared to Sanskrit. puyati “rots, stinks,” putih “stinking, foul.” Pus often refers to a thick white, yellowish, or greenish opaque liquid produced in infected tissue, consisting of dead white blood cells, bacteria, tissue debris, and serum. It also refers to the substance that dead animal flesh is chemically changed to after being consumed or while rotting in one’s digestive tract. The ingestion of meat and dairy products create pus residue in the body, while starchy and fatty foods are mucus-forming.

The word “mucusless,” or mucus-free, refers to foods that are not mucus-forming. Such foods digest without leaving behind a thick, viscous, slimy substance called mucus. These foods include all kinds of fat-free, and starchless, fruits and vegetables.

All foods that are pus/mucus-forming are acid-forming. The word “acid” is from the early 1600s meaning “of the taste of vinegar,” from French acide (16c.) or directly from Latin acidus “sour, sharp,” adjective of state from acere “to be sour,” from PIE root *ak- “sharp, pointed” (see acrid).In chemistry it refers to a class of substances whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour taste, the ability to turn blue litmus red, and the ability to react with bases and certain metals to form salts. From a mucusless perspective, pus and mucus-forming foods are understood to be “acid-forming” inside the human body. Such foods create an acidic internal environment that is detrimental to wellness.

The following is a list of pus, mucus, and acid-forming foods:

FLESH (PUS-FORMING)

  • Blood of Animals
  • Eggs (All Kinds)
  • Lard
  • Meat (Beef, Chicken, Horse, Dog, Mutton/Lamb, Turkey, Veal, Pork:
  • Bacon, Ham, Sausage, Gammon, Chitterlings, Pig Feet; Wild Game: Bison, Buffalo, Ostrich, Rabbit, Venison, etc.)
  • Margarine (Made with Animal Fat)

FISH (PUS-FORMING)

  • Crustacean (Crab, Crawfish, Lobster, Shrimp)
  • Fish (All Types)
  • Mollusks (Clam, Oysters, Mussels, Snail, etc.)
  • Roe (Caviar)
  • Salmon
  • Shell Fish

DAIRY PRODUCTS (PUS-FORMING)

  • Butter, Cow
  • Buttermilk
  • Cheese (All Kinds)
  • Cream
  • Crème fraîche
  • Kefir
  • Milk (All Animals and Kinds; Raw Organic, Skim, 1 or 2 %, etc.)
  • Yogurt

CEREALS (MODERATELY MUCUS-FORMING)

  • Barley
  • Breads (All Kinds; Barley, Black, Rye, White, Graham, Pumpernickel,
  • Zwieback, etc.)
  • Cereal Grains (All Kinds; Maize, Farina, Kamut, Millet,
  • Oats, Quinoa, Spelt, White Rice, Brown Rice, Whole or Refined Wheat, etc.)
  • Cornmeal
  • Pseudocereals (All Kinds; Amaranth, Buckwheat, Chia, Cockscomb, Kañiwa, Quinoa, etc.)
  • Pastas

BEANS (MODERATELY MUCUS-FORMING)

  • Beans (All Kinds and Forms; Black Beans, Black-eyed peas, Fava Beans, Butter Beans, Cannellini Beans, Chickpeas/Garbanzo Beans, Edamame, Great Northern Beans, Italian Beans, Kidney Beans, Lentils, Lima Beans, Mung Beans, Navy Beans, Pinto Beans, Soy Beans, Split Peas, String Beans (Green Beans), White Beans, etc.)

NUTS AND SEEDS (MUCUS-FORMING)

  • Nuts (All Kinds; Acorns, Almonds, Brazil Nuts, Cashews, Chestnuts, Hazelnuts, Peanuts, Pecans, Pistachios’, Walnuts, etc.)
  • Seeds (All Kinds; Sunflower, Pumpkin, Hemp, Sesame, etc.)

PROCESSED FOODS (PUS AND/OR VERY MUCUS-FORMING)

  • Dried Convenience Foods
  • Fast Foods
  • Frozen Convenience Foods
  • Packaged Convenience Foods
  • Processed Meat

CONFECTIONERIES/CANDY/SWEETS (PUS AND/OR VERY MUCUS-FORMING)

  • Baked Goods (All kinds including pies, cakes, pastries, etc.)
  • Candy (All Types; Bars, Caramels, Chocolate, Fudge, Jelly candies, Rock
  • Candy, Taffy
  • Gelatin (Jello)
  • Ice Cream (Dairy and Non-Dairy)
  • Marshmallow

ACIDIC, FERMENTED, OR DISTILLED DRINKS/SYRUPS (ACID-FORMING STIMULANTS)

  • Alcoholic Beverages (All Kinds; Ale, Beer, Brandy, Champagne, Hard
  • Cider, Liqueur, Mead, Porter, Rum, Sake/Rice Wine, Gin, Herbal Wine, Lager, Fruit Wine, Vodka Whisky, Tequila, etc.)
  • Syrups (Brown Rice, Barley Malt, Chocolate, Corn, Artificially Flavored)
  • Cocoa
  • Coffee
  • Kombucha Tea
  • Soft Drink (Soda Pop)
  • Tea (All Kinds from the Theaceae family)
  • Vinegar (White, Apple Cider)
  • Old-fashioned Root Beer

FERMENTED FOODS AND SAUCES (ACID-FORMING STIMULANTS)

  • Fish Sauce
  • Fermented Vegetables (All; Kimchi/cabbage and other veggies, Olives
  • Pickles/cucumbers. Sauerkraut/cabbage, etc.)
  • Miso
  • Sauces with Vinegar (Hot Sauce, Ketchup, Mustard, Mayonnaise, Relish,
  • Tartar, Barbecue, Salad Dressings, Salsa, etc.)
  • Soy Sauce

VEGETARIAN/VEGAN PROCESSED FOODS (MODERATELY MUCUS FORMING)

  • Chips (corn, potato, plantain, etc.)
  • Frozen Vegan Breakfast Foods (waffels, etc.)
  • Hummus (processed chickpeas)
  • Lab Grown Animal Tissue
  • Margarine
  • Nutritional Yeast
  • Pasta (egg-free)
  • Pasteurized 100% Fruit Juice (potentially acid-forming)
  • Plant milks (grains, nuts, seeds, and legumes including soy, rice, etc.)
  • Plant-based butter (nuts, seeds, and legumes including soy, peanut, etc.)
  • Plant-based creamers
  • Soy Lecithin (food additive)
  • Tempeh
  • Texturized Vegetable Protein (‘mock’ meats including soy, etc.)
  • Tofu
  • Vegan Baked Goods
  • Vegan Confections (All Types; Chocolates, Ice Cream, etc.)
  • Vegan Cheese Substitutes
  • Vegan Mayonnaise
  • Vegan Whipped Cream
  • Yogurts (Plant-based)

OILS (FATTY AND MILDLY MUCUS FORMING)

  • Oil (All types; Avocado Oil, Chia Seed, Coconut, Corn, Cotton Seed, Cotton Seed, Flax Seed, Grape Seed, Hemp Seed, Nut Oils, Olive, Palm, Peanut, Quinoa, Rapeseed (Including Canola), Safflower, Soybean etc.)

SALTS AND SPICES (STIMULANTS/POTENTIALLY ACID-FORMING)

  • Black Peppercorns
  • Cayenne Pepper
  • Chili Powder
  • Cream of Tarter
  • Curry Powder
  • Nutmeg
  • Paprika
  • Pepper
  • Salt (Celery, Crystal, Iodized, Sea)
  • Vanilla Extract

STARCHY OR FATTY VEGETABLES AND FRUITS (SLIGHTLY MUCUS-FORMING)

  • Artichoke
  • Avocados
  • Cassava
  • Cauliflower
  • Coconut Meat
  • Corn
  • Durian
  • Fungus (Mushrooms)
  • Green Peas
  • Olives
  • Parsnips
  • Peas (Raw)
  • Plantain
  • Plantains
  • Pumpkins
  • Raw or Baked White Potatoes
  • Raw Squashes (Winter, Acorn, Butternut, etc.)
  • Raw Sweet Potatoes
  • Rutabaga
  • Turnip
  • Unripe Banana

What are Deceptive Mucus-Formers?

Here is a list of foods that many people do not realize create mucus:

  • Rice (great for creating glue to bind books, bad for the transition to a mucus-free diet)
  • Avocados (fatty item that may be used on the transition, but are highly addictive. Although technically a fruit, if used it is best to combine them with a mucus-free combination salad or vegetables to aid elimination. However, it is recommended to stay away from them if you are not already stuck to them.)
  • Nuts (Mucus-forming, but may be used on the transition. It is best to eat with dried fruits like raisins to aid with elimination.)
  • Plantains (Starchy)
  • Tofu (Slimy and mucus-forming.)
  • Un-ripened fruits like green bananas (the riper the fruit you eat the better).
  • Corn (It does not eliminate well. When cooked corn or corn chips are eating it becomes mushy and slimy in the intestines.)
  • Corn chips (Some people use them on the transition, but they are very addictive and do not eliminate well)
  • Beans (They are starchy and mucus-forming. But, they may be used sparingly on the transition within close proximity to green-leafy salads)
  • Starchy Vegetables (Some vegetalbes are starchy and mucus-forming in raw or cooked forms, such as white potatoes. But, many other vegetables, such as sweet potatoes, become almost mucus-free (starchless) after proper cooking.

The Transition Diet

It is very important that people learn how to transition from the most harmful mucus-forming foods to the ones that leave behind the least amount of waste. To learn more about this transitional process, check out Arnold Ehret’s Mucusless Diet Healing System: Annotated, Revised, and Edited by Prof. Spira.

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1 Year Old Puppy Ate Some Of A Dead Animal Three Reasons Why Baby Squirrels Die in Captivity

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Three Reasons Why Baby Squirrels Die in Captivity

Did you ever take in a baby squirrel and start to feed and care for it, then have it go downhill physically and die? You’re not alone! The following are three common reasons why baby squirrels die in captivity:

1. The Wrong Diet.

Improper diet is the number one reason why squirrels die. There’s a lot of controversy over what is the correct formula to feed baby squirrels who are still nursing. Many wild animal rehabilitators will tell you to buy an expensive puppy formula, and to never feed a squirrel cow’s milk. I’ve used the expensive puppy formula with marginal success, but recently they changed the formulation which left it lacking enough milk fat for squirrels. Now, all of a sudden, they’re telling people to add heavy cream to boost the fat content! Hello! What is heavy cream? It’s the cream from cow’s milk! The reason cow’s milk will kill a baby squirrel is because there are substances in the milk that will give a squirrel severe diarrhea. Diarrhea will lead to an electrolyte imbalance,which will lead to a heart irregularity and ultimately death from sudden cardiac arrest.

I’ve found that if you get rid of the substance in cow’s milk and cream that causes diarrhea, a baby squirrel will do just fine on a cream rich cows milk formula. But you must do one simple but vital thing to make this formula safe for squirrels! I can teach you how to make this formula and save you having to spend twenty dollars per can for puppy formula!

2. Hypocalcemia.

The second big killer of squirrels is Hypocalcemia. That’s a fancy name for low blood Calcium. Squirrels, especially in captivity, have an extraordinarily high calcium requirement. Death from low blood calcium comes after they stop nursing. While they are getting milk, their calcium needs are being met. When they quit nursing, they need a calcium supplement or they’ll develop what is called Metabolic Bone Disease. This disease is characterized by loss of calcium from the bones, especially in the spine and back legs. They start to shuffle their back legs when they walk, and progressively lose nerve and muscle control. Their bones become brittle and break easily.

Low blood calcium can also lead to heart irregularity and sudden cardiac death. A squirrel with metabolic Bone Disease is a pathetic scene! Prevention is simple! I teach a very simple way to make a dietary supplement called Nut Squares or Nut Balls that will insure optimum calcium intake and good health for squirrels.

3. Internal Injuries.

The last major killer of baby squirrels is internal injuries. Many times a found squirrel has fallen a great distance out of a leaf nest. One of the first things you should do for a baby squirrel, after you get it in a warm environment, is to check it over carefully for injuries. Babies normally have rapid respiration and heartbeats, but if a baby squirrel is having difficulty breathing or is using more than just chest muscles to breathe, it may have internal injuries. It could have broken ribs or a contused lung or heart! Blunt trauma to the abdomen can injure internal organs such as the liver, kidneys or spleen. A baby squirrel’s abdominal wall is very thin. If you see dark purple discoloration of the abdomen, that is an ominous sign that indicates internal bleeding.

There’s not a whole lot that can be done for a baby squirrel that is in that condition. A Veterinarian could evaluate the animal, but chances are, nothing would be done other than observe and support it’s breathing struggle with oxygen and a warm environment until it passes. I’ve found in my years as a Squirrel Rehabilitator that squirrels love to have their head and neck gently rubbed, it’s very soothing and calming for them. Death is a part of life. For me, holding and comforting a dying squirrel helps me realize how precious and brief life is. I find tremendous joy and satisfaction in caring for these magnificent creatures, and thank God that even in death, I can make a difference!

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1 Why Are There Only Animals And No Human Gures Talk To The Paw by Melinda Metz

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Talk To The Paw by Melinda Metz

If you love cats you will love this book. If you love the modern Cinderella stories where the reader sees what the characters don’t and you can’t turn the pages fast enough to find out if they ever get out of their own way and allow nature to take its course– Then you will love this story. If you’re a reader that simply enjoys a fast read, populated with appealing, believable characters Talk To The Paw will appeal to you.

MacGyver is Jamie Snyder’s cat. Well, actually he’s “the man in her life.” She trusts him, confides in him and since swearing off real men as companions, MacGyver is her #1. MacGyver isn’t convinced his human is really finished with men… he can smell her loneliness. Whether Jamie is aware of it or not, MacGyver knows his human needs companionship he cannot provide. Surprisingly MacGyver notices their neighbor, David is emanating the same odor as his Jamie. Could it be they are both lonely and are putting off a scent only the cat recognizes?

MacGyver (the TV character) might have been a top-notch, can do, can make anything out of anything dude. But Macgyver the cat is a loyal, loving, can do-kind-a-cat that resorts to becoming a cat-burglar to help his human. Jamie’s neighbor David recently lost his wife Clarrissa and despite the urging of his friends, simply is not ready to move past his mourning. He has a dog named Diogee that has no clue his human is lonely. MacGyver seems to be the only one, human or pet that recognizes how perfect Jamie and David could be together. All they need is a push. So the cat starts stealing David’s laundry… a sock here, a towel there. Jamie figures out who the odd laundry pieces belong too – but sees David as merely a friend. MacGyver is like “what is wrong with these people?” “Why do humans complicate something that comes so very natural in the animal world?”

Can Jamie and David see past their personal issues and view the big picture right in front of them? Or are they destined to complicate that which should come about so naturally?

MacGyver the cat will quickly win you over. You will be silently cheering for the humans in the story to get as smart as the cat. His loyalty and dedication to Jamie are admirable and positively adorable. Talk To The Paw is a quick read, that keeps you warmly enveloped in the story right up to the very last page.

I loved the story. Being a cat lover, with four of the adorable, aloof, highly intelligent fur babies at home, Talk To The Paw had me wondering if they smell my feelings too. (They sure act like it!)

Happy Reading,

RJ

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1 Why Are There Only Animals And No Human Figures Scientific Explanation of the Quantum Enigmas

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Scientific Explanation of the Quantum Enigmas

This is a review of a book by two physics professors titled, “Quantum Enigma: Physics Encounters Consciousness.” I argue that to understand quantum mechanics you need to understand the difference between science, metaphysics, and philosophy.

Human beings have a drive to know and understand everything, and there are two methods of inquiry that stand side-by-side as equals: metaphysics and science. Quantum Enigma: Physics Encounters Consciousness shows that a lack of understanding of metaphysics is a stumbling block in understanding science. Metaphysical questions arise from our transcendence, that is, our ability to make ourselves the subject of our own knowledge: What is the conscious knowledge of humans as opposed to the sense knowledge of animals? What is a real being? What are mental beings (images, concepts, past, future, dreams)? What is truth? What is causality? What is free will? What does it mean to understand something? Is the universe intelligible?

Basically, the answer to all of the above questions is that there is no answer. They are mysteries. We can comprehend what a human being is because we know everything we do and everything that happens to us, but we can’t define or explicate what a human being is. In other words, humans are embodied spirits. Using the categories of metaphysics, the human soul is spiritual. Assuming or hoping that the universe is intelligible leads to the existence of a transcendent reality that is called God in Western religions. God is not a free image, like Santa Clause, but a real being, like a beloved friend who gets on your nerves from time to time.

In science, there are no mysteries because science has a tremendous track record of success. There are only unanswered questions. It can be said of metaphysics that there is no record of success. An example of metaphysical wisdom is that knowledge is the openness of being to the self-manifestation of being. In metaphysics, whether or not the universe is intelligible is an open question. But in science, it is not. If Johannes Kepler thought for one minute the universe was not intelligible, he would not have spent 10 years trying to understand why the planets move as they do. What caused the Big Bang is not a mystery. What is consciousness is a mystery. Calling both questions mysteries indicates you don’t understand the difference between metaphysics and science.

A quantum enigma arises from the question of why the isotope cobalt-60 decays into nickel-60 with a half-life of 5.27 years. Using the probability waves of quantum mechanics, physicists can calculate the half-lives of isotopes. A particular cobalt-60 atom may decay in 10 minutes or 10 years. There is a 50% probability that it will decay in 5.27 years. This raises the question: What causes a particular cobalt-60 atom to decay at the particular time it does? With our present state of knowledge, there is no hope of answering this question. This is an enigma or puzzle because we understand so much about isotopes from quantum mechanics, but not this.

The authors agree with the nonsense that there is a connection between human rationality (consciousness and free will) and quantum mechanics. I think this idea arises from a lack of understanding of the difference between science, metaphysics, and philosophy. Philosophy is a method of inquiry that arises above another method of inquiry. How should scientists do science is a philosophical question. The scientific method is an answer to this question. The various interpretations of quantum mechanics are part of the philosophy of quantum mechanics because they are attempts to answer questions about quantum mechanics.

One way we obtain knowledge and understanding is through analogies. If you poke a lion in a cage with a stick, it will roar and try to claw you. We know by analogy that the lion is angry because this is how we would feel if it was happening to us. There is an analogy that is used in quantum mechanics to answer the question: What are quantum mechanical waves?

To answer this philosophical question, consider the decay of cobalt-60. If you observe a cobalt-60 atom for 5.27 years it may decay (D) or may remain stable (S). Repeated observations will give you a series of S’s and D’s. You get, in other words, a set: (S,S,D,D,D,S,..). The fraction of times you get S or D approaches 1/2 in the limit as the number of elements in the set increases. I am using set theory because you need set theory to understand an observation analogous to the decay of cobalt-60: Flipping a coin high in the air with your thumb and fore finger and getting heads (H) or tails (T). With coin tosses you get the same kind of set as you get observing cobalt-60 atoms. The probability of getting heads or tails is 1/2 because that is the fraction you get from the set and all possible subsets. In the case of the coin, there are two events (flipping and landing head or tails), the subtle proviso that the calculation is done for all subsets to eliminate the possibility that there is a demon or hidden variable affecting the outcome, and the fact that we understand why we get heads (or tails) half of the time. In the case of cobalt-60, there is only one event: the decay of the atom. These are two different phenomena. Saying, “1/2 is the probability of a cobalt-60 atom decaying in 5.27 years” is an analogy or a philosophical comment. In my opinion, calling the quantum mechanical waves probability waves is an example of philosophizing.

The basis for thinking there is a connection between consciousness and quantum mechanics is the double-slit experiment with particles (photons, electrons, or atoms). A version of this experiment is on YouTube.com (“Double-Slit Experiment-Water Wave Interference Pattern”). The double-slit creates two water waves and a very visible interference pattern. The same interference pattern occurs with particles. The probability waves of quantum mechanics explain this and it is another triumph for quantum mechanics.

The big difference between the two interference patterns is that you don’t need a screen to see the water interference pattern. You don’t observe any particle interference pattern if there is no screen. But, the screen is there because a human being put it there. Hence, it is the action of humans that created the interference pattern. This is an enigma or puzzle because it raises the question: What is happening to the particles after they hit the double-slit if there is no screen? In any case, this is the reasoning, so far as I can figure out, behind the idea that quantum mechanics involves human consciousness but classical physics does not.

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1 Why Are There Only Animals And No Human Figgures Permaculture and Mezcal in Oaxaca, Mexico

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Permaculture and Mezcal in Oaxaca, Mexico

A few years ago I was leading a group of travelers to the southern Mexico state of Oaxaca on a mezcal educational excursion. Mezcal is the agave based spirit produced in Mexico dating back to anywhere between the 1500s to over 2,000 years ago, depending upon to which theory of the history of distillation one subscribes. In the course of visiting a number of small, artisanal distilleries, or palenques as they’re known, we attended a co-operative in the village of San Baltazar Chichicapam (“Chichicapam”). There were about a dozen men, women and children pitching agave hearts known as piñas into an in-ground oven on top of and around a mound of rocks, below which were flaming logs. They were members of the indigenous Zapotec ethnolinguistic group. They working feverishly. My clients were intrigued. Some began photographing, while others offered to assist the workers. My clients asked me a plethora of questions about what they were witnessing. I explained how the co-op worked. One exclaimed “this is a classic example of permaculture.”

I had heard of the word permaculture and had a rough idea of what the term connoted. I was curious to learn more, so after the conclusion of the mezcal tour I went home and looked up the word online. I found definitions, and more detailed explanations some of which placed the term in historical context. Sustainability was one of the recurring themes. I had already been writing about mezcal and sustainability for quite a while.

Over the ensuing days I began to consider that indeed what my clients had witnessed was what permaculture was all about. I still did not grasp the difficulty in arriving at a single definition. This became more difficult within the context of agave and mezcal production and the implications for the broader community; that is, the culture. But what I was able to glean from my cursory review of the literature was that not only were these particular villagers practicing permaculture, but that the industry sustainability about which I had been writing was actually part and parcel of the concept.

Over the subsequent months I struggled with three issues: better understanding the various permutations of permaculture; selecting case studies of mezcal production and permaculture for a proposed book project; and trying to convince an American photographer friend who had been shooting all aspects of mezcal production for about 20 years, that it would be in his best interest to participate in the endeavor. The undertaking stalled. However since then, that is periodically over the past three years, I have not only continued to ponder permaculture within the context of mezcal production, but have come across aspects of their connection which I had not previously considered, certainly to a sufficient extent. One such dimension is the importance of anyone associated with the industry being cognizant of the possible adverse sequelae of not addressing water issues. The “mezcal boom” might not be all good for everyone for all time. Solutions fall more within the purview of applied anthropology, rather than how I have conducted my academic endeavors over the past few decades. My approach has been more to observe, understand and teach; rather than to observe, assess and improve. I suppose it’s because I am a product of 1970s social anthropology, trained to be more than anything else an ivory tower academic.

This article, perhaps a pilot project of sorts, works towards an all-encompassing definition of permaculture using the Chichicapam co-operative as a foundation for understanding the term within the mezcal industry. It touches upon other aspects of mezcal production taken from other palenques which could form the basis for additional case studies. These illustrate indicia of permaculture not necessarily evident in Chichicapam. The article only tangentially touches upon what I consider the main danger the industry faces, that is water, in terms of maintaining sustainability and advancing permaculture tenets.

Three final caveats are:

(1) Many aspects of agave growth and its use for making mezcal as well as other products, and industry sustainability, are not included in this article, primarily because I have written about them elsewhere. Some, however, are included, but only to the extent that they relate to the Chichicapam case study.

(2) This is not a primer on mezcal production, so the reader interested in just permaculture who has little if any knowledge of Mexico and mezcal, may be at a disadvantage. However, interspersed throughout the study are some of the basics of how agave is employed to produce the spirit, the use of waste product, and of course the interaction between humans and their physical environment. The corollary is that it is hoped that mezcal aficionados will gain a better understanding of the concept of permaculture and how it intersects with mezcal production.

(3) No footnotes or references are included, specifically for the portions regarding coming to grips with defining permaculture, although several sources have been consulted. It is my synthesis of the literature, for better or worse.

I will examine the workings of the Chichicapam co-op palenque, then put together a workable definition of permaculture which can be applied to the particular distillery, and finally go back to the palenque and examine its workings within the context of how I perceive the interplay between artisanal mezcal production on the one hand, and sustainable agriculture and permanent culture on the other.

Mezcal Production at the Co-operative in San Baltazar Chichicapam, Oaxaca

Fortunato Hernández, wife Victoria Martínez, their daughter Estela and son-in-law Pedro are tossing píñas onto a mound of hot rocks built atop blazing tree trunks, all in the pit-in-the-ground oven. The family is working at the co-op palenque in Chichicapam owned by Angélica García. Member participants pay her in mezcal for use of the distillery. By all outward appearances and in terms of how the palenque functions, this is a communal effort and does indeed represent permaculture at its best. I doubt if anyone using the facility has heard of permaculture. No matter, since neither did cultures practicing it thousands of years prior to when the term was coined, or perhaps even contemplated.

The rocks being employed by Fortunato and his family have already been covered with wet fiber known as bagazo, discard from the distillation process now being used to insulate the piñas from direct contact with the stones. The family is being assisted by four hired day laborers. Others at the palenque are also pitching in as needed, although their primary tasks are attending to their own mezcal production operations at the distillery.

Inside the covered portion of the palenque Alfonso Sánchez is working a horse, egging him on to pull a large limestone wheel known as a tahona over the batch of baked agave piñas he had cut with a machete into small more manageable pieces the day before. As a quantity of agave, locally known as maguey, is crushed, Alfonso loads it into a wheel barrow, pushes it up a wooden ramp and dumps it into a pine slat fermentation vat known as a tina. His wife has arrived with his hot lunch, though it’s a little early since Alfonso must first finish the task at hand before the mid-afternoon heat makes it too grueling for the horse to continue beyond the customary five or so hours of work daily.

The wheel barrow is being shared with Lázaro Mendoza, yet another palenquero working with his own family and fellow villagers. They’re using all three copper pot stills or alembics at the same time, in the process of doing a first distillation of Lázaro’s fermented mash. The fruit of this labor, the first distillation, is not even known as mezcal, but rather shishe. There are four men working in this group, together engaged in different stages of the distillation process. One is pitching fully fermented fiber into the wheel barrow, another is filling buckets with the liquid; it is collectively known as tepache. They’re loading up a still. Another is stoking the fire under a second still, while the fourth is replacing a full bucket of shishe from beneath the spigot with an empty receptacle.

The palenque is used by 10 – 15 families, all Chichicapam residents. It was built by Pablo García, Angélica’s late husband. He died in a car accident eleven years ago. Prior to his death Angélica was a housewife raising the couple’s four children. Angélica had been involved in mezcal production to the same extent as other wives in Chichicapam, and no more. She was thrust into the role of owner after her husband’s passing. Quickly she began to receive assistance from her husband’s palenquero friends, with whom she had of course already been acquainted. She readily garnered their respect, which remains solid to date. She no longer requires any assistance, having learned the ropes through sink or swim initiation.

Prior to the construction of the palenque, the tradition had been for the artisanal mezcal producers in Chichicapam who did not have their own facility, to rent from other owners. The producers had been paying the palenque owners 25 liters of mezcal for each tina of tepache filled. A tina should produce anywhere from 60 to 120 liters of mezcal, depending on the type of agave being processed, time of year harvested, the particular micro-climate in which it is grown and the skillset and knowledge of the palenquero. Accordingly each palenquero had been paying a consider percentage of the yield for the right to use the tools of the trade owned by others.

Pablo used savings and borrowed funds to build the co-op in 1996, as a means of reducing his own production costs, and just as importantly those of his villager friends. Initially he did not charge them for use of the palenque. He then began charging two liters per tina. The amount currently charged by Angélica is 7.5 liters, but it can vary depending on the quality of mezcal produced (taste, percentage alcohol, type of agave, etc.). Anyone can use her palenque. The “regulars” produce a fairly consistent product. With the others, there are sometimes quality issues, and accordingly it is with these producers more so than with the others that the amount charged sometimes increases.

The palenque consists of a sheltered area housing the three copper stills, ten tinas, the shallow pit used for horses to pull the tahona over the baked chopped sweet agave, and a storage room where both mezcal and readily removable parts of the still (i.e. copper) are locked inside to prevent theft. Outside there are a couple of acres of land where there are two ovens. One holds up to 15 tons of piñas, and the other up to 12. The larger one is currently not being used because it requires a lot of firewood.

The land surrounding the palenque is also used to temporarily store the spent bagazo, the mounds of firewood owned by different palenqueros waiting for their turn to bake their agave, the piñas, and often a horse waiting to be taken into the covered area to work. Angélica does not supply the beast of burden. If a palenquero does not own a horse he rents one for 150 – 200 pesos per day.

Angélica retains ownership of the bagazo. It is most often used as mulch. She either has it trucked out to her own fields of agave or other crops, or sells it to the palenqueros or anyone else interested in buying it for use as compost or mulch. She also uses the bagazo as part of a soil mixture she places in small plastic bags to grow her tobalá agave from seed.

When Fortunato, Alfonso, Lázaro and the other participating palenqueros have harvested their agave, they take it to the palenque and leave it in mounds segregated from those of others. Only infrequently does a palenquero have enough of his own agave to fill even the smaller oven, and hence he waits until other palenqueros have arrived with their own agave. That’s the norm. Two, three or four palenqueros bake their agave in the same oven at the same time to economize on the cost of firewood. Whether you’re baking 5 tons or 9 tons, the amount of fuel required to keep the oven hot for five days remains essentially constant.

The first to arrive at the palenque with agave is entitled to the first opportunity to bake; then the second, and so on. There’s an order to things. All that Angélica stipulates is first come first to have the right to use the oven(s). The palenqueros work out the rest, in terms of the order for crushing, fermenting and distilling. There are rarely disputes.

Angélica keeps a notebook in which she records who is using how many tinas. She must therefore attend at the palenque on a regular basis. She lives only a six or seven minute walk away. When the mezcal has been distilled, the palenqueros attend at her home with payment. It is at this time that she may sample to ensure the quality is up to snuff, and deals with any issues dictating a higher payment. With her regular producers she generally does not test quality.

Angélica usually sells the mezcal she receives from her home. On a regular basis she sells to her mother-in-law who takes it to Oaxaca for sale to her own regular customers. Angélica does not blend the mezcal provided to her, but rather keeps it separated. Everyone’s product is a little different, and there is no need to mix together batches of the agave spirit from different palenqueros.

Chichicapam was founded in 1583, a satellite community which since the outset has remained an agricultural community under the sphere of the state capital. The most recent comprehensive census figures reveal that it has 655 households comprised of a total of 2699 residents, with an almost equal number of females and males represented (1446 and 1253 respectively). This is an unusual ratio given that Oaxaca is the second poorest state in the country, characterized by significant adult male emigration out of economic necessity.

The women to men ratio in Chichicapam is 1.154. By contrast, in nearby communities which do not produce mezcal, the ratio is skewed. For example in San Marcos Tlapazola, San Bartolomé Quialana and San Lucas Quiavini, the ratios are respectively 1.481, 1.34 and 1.318, with a conspicuous absence of adult males in the streets or working the fields close to the villages. It is suggested that Chichicapam’s numbers are a direct result of the co-operative palenque’s ability to keep men in the village as a consequence of enabling them to eke out a reasonable living – harmoniously working together to produce mezcal for their mutual benefit while at the same time maintaining productive land.

Towards a Definition of Permaculture Applicable to Artisanal Mezcal Production

In 1978, Australians David Holmgren and Bill Mollison first coined the phrase permaculture, as a design concept mirroring how systems in nature survive, continue and prevail. At the time it was meant to combine the words permanent and agriculture, and referred to extending what had been observed in nature, to how humans might conduct their agricultural lives. It was a philosophy of design principles for sustaining the environment and hence making it viable on an ongoing basis for human benefit through wise use of land, crops, nature and water. The seeds for the term’s initial development by Holmgren and Mollison dated to earlier written works by Joseph Russell Smith in 1929, Toyohiko Kagawa and Masanobo Fukuoka in the 1930s, P.A. Yeomans in the 1940s and 1950s, and others such as Stewart Brand, Ruth Stout and Esther Deans. These treatises centered upon the maintenance and sustainability of natural systems through human sensitivity to and the development of, inter alia, orchards, gardens, landscapes, water supply and distribution, crops and “natural farming.” Non-human animals were sometimes integrated into the theses.

Then, a decade after the term was first promulgated by Holmgren and Mollison, Mollison with Reny Mia Slay authored a more comprehensive work, Introduction to Permaculture. Mollison subsequently wrote Permaculture: Principles and Pathways Beyond Sustainability. In short order the term began to include and stand for, at least to Mollison, permanent culture as well as agriculture. That is, concepts, philosophies and design strategies not only for the benefit and maintenance of natural systems, but also of humans as both individuals and members of families and communities.

However to date many authors continue to write about permaculture without integrating the healthy maintenance of our own specie into the concept. I suppose at least part of the motivation is to financially capitalize upon the movement towards maintaining sustainability of only the physical environment through being sensitive as to the “how,” and bandying about terms such as organic and natural and all else that is “touchy feely” and protects our land, plants, animals, rivers, lakes and oceans. But the preferred understanding, I suggest, here and now in the 21st century, whether or not mezcal is considered, is to include human beings in the discussion as integral parts of the whole. If we return to what impressed my clients at the Chichicapam co-op several years ago, it was indeed the integration of human and natural systems, the ways in which the villagers advanced their economic goals as efficiently as practicable without adversely impacting the environment and in fact improving it for nature and for themselves.

Within the context of mezcal, agave, the broader environment and human settlement, I suggest that permaculture is, or at minimum should aspire to be the following: the intricate and harmonious weaving together of what nature can provide in a microclimate, with material goods, and human needs/aspirations, in an ethical manner which while minimizing adverse impact, self-sustains the complete system as well as advances it to an optimum, realistic and attainable extent.

Permaculture and the Co-operative Mezcal Distillery at San Baltazar Chichicapam, Oaxaca

The tools of the trade required to produce mezcal in the co-op, and in fact in most artisanal palenques in the state, are by and large sourced locally. They include:

• Copper stills of about 300 liters in size, fabricated at two workshops in the town of Ocotlán which is less than a half hour’s drive from Chichicapam (although they can be purchased in the state of Michoacán, for a little less of a capital outlay).

• Wooden slat fermentation vats again produced locally.

• Iron implements used to cut the agave out of the fields (i.e. machetes) which have been hand forged in Ocotlán since the 16th century.

• Limestone mined from nearby quarries, required for wheels for crushing the baked carmelized agave.

• Stone and gravel for encasing the wheel and the copper still.

• Clay pots for storing and transporting the mezcal, although more recently glass, plastic and stainless steel have been employed.

• Locally collected rocks for the oven.

• Wood for fueling the ovens and the stills. Typically hardwood logs for the stills are cut from forests a couple of hours away from Chichicapam, or more locally by palenqueros who head out early in the morning with their donkeys and burros. It can also be purchased from lumberjacks who cannot secure as high a price for “seconds” as they can with quality trunks which can be used in the lumber industry. Also, for the stills the palenqueros can use dried agave leaves, kindling they source from the hills, and/or discards from the debarking industry, that is bark with wood still attached which is shaved from trunks to produce lengths of lumber. Some brand owners in the village have embarked upon reforestation projects so as to ensure an ongoing supply of wood to fuel ovens.

• Water from wells, although with climate change there has been a water shortage in Chichicapam for the past couple of years, the further details of which, and other matters relating to water, discussed below.

• Agave cultivated or harvested wild from the nearby hills. For the former there are three predominant means of reproduction: harvesting and transplanting pups or hijuelos naturally thrown by the mother plant, germinating seeds harvested from the flower stalk known as the quiote, or by obtaining baby agave naturally self-pollinated or by manual pollination. In Chichicapam a program has begun to ensure that there will be ample wild agave in the future, such that the municipality dictates that for every wild agave for which permission has been granted to harvest, two small agave must be planted. Chichicapam understands that the mezcal boom has the potential for spawning economic fortune down the road provided that care is taken to ensure an ongoing supply of, for example, wild agave.

• The buildings for storing mezcal and some parts of the copper stills, and for sheltering the stills, the vats and the crushing area, have been constructed with almost entirely locally produced materials including clay bricks and roof tiles and adobe.

While not part of this particular palenque, perhaps noteworthy for a subsequent project on mezcal and permaculture, about a 20 minute drive away there are numerous “ancestral” distilleries which produce in clay pots. The raw material used in their production is sourced from in and around the nearby town of Atzompa where they are fired. Within the same proximity to the co-op is a more traditional palenque which has constructed one of its copper alembic casings using an old dump truck tire rim.

But it was learning about the human factor that impressed my clients to the extent that they believed they were witnessing a dynamic example of the permaculture I have set to define. The following are some aspects of mezcal production at the co-op which are consistent with the healthy, productive and sustainable tenets of the permanent cultural side of our definition:

• The premature death of Ms. Garciá’s husband could have spelled disaster for her and her four children. But the acceptance of and respect for her which quickly arrived in the village enabled Ms. García to thrive. Getting paid in mezcal rather than currency has enabled her to sell the use of her palenque without worrying about getting paid. For those readers who are old enough to recall, Ms. García need not worry about being approached with “I’ll gladly pay you Tuesday for a hamburger today.” Despite the lingering machismo in much of Mexico, she has managed to succeed for the benefit of not only herself and her family, but also for her village.

• Regardless of how much maguey is being baked, the amount of firewood required to fuel the oven for five days is the same. And so the economic benefit for the palenqueros of combining the agave they are able to readily harvest without it drying out rather than waiting until ten tons have been accumulated of their own, with the maguey of others who contribute their fair share of firewood, is remarkable.

• The palenqueros harmoniously work out the schedule between themselves as to the order of using the crushing area, fermentation vats, and stills.

• Each understands the importance of keeping the storage room locked at night which reduces to close to zero the likelihood of theft of mezcal and valuable pieces of copper. Because Chichicapam is a small village with self-government and policing, trust is able to run deep.

• While palenqueros at times hire day laborers, as indicated the norm is also to call upon family and extended family members, as well as others working independently at the palenque to pitch in as required.

• Not only labor, but also equipment is shared.

• Three, and at times four families can work at the Palenque at the same time, each attending to its own stage of production.

• Rural southern Mexico has traditionally been subject to emigration by adult males to the US in search of work. This is backed up by the male to female ratios in a few villages, as noted above. But the ratio in Chichicapam is essentially 1:1, an anomaly for the region. Yes the mezcal boom has spawned a lot more work for villagers, both male and female, but the figures suggest that this particular locale, in large part because of the successful running of the co-op, has been able to retain a disproportionate percentage of adult males relative to what happens in other towns and villages. And, Chichicapam boasts more paved roads and later model vehicles than surrounding villages, which would suggest in large part because of the efficiency of the co-op, and/or others in the village in the industry. Palenqueros are able to retain more money for self and village improvement than residents of other villages. Government does provide grant money for bags of cement for paving projects, but often families must pay for the sand and gravel, and the labor, for paving, made possible because of how the village, including of course the co-op, is managed. Ms. García’s co-op has kept palenqueros in Mexico.

With tools of the trade and means of production (that is the human element) having been illustrated within the context of permaculture, the final component which factors into our definition of the term is how artisanal mezcal production at the Chichicapam co-op generates no “waste” within the traditional sense of the phrase. Put another way, in the positive, the palenque recycles. But these particular villagers have a long way to go in advancing in this regard, so we should perhaps look at the industry in a more general sense, not without noting the main shortcoming facing both the co-op in particular and hand-crafted mezcal more generally; water.

Mayahuel is the pre-Hispanic goddess of agave. The succulent warranted such reverence because it gave so much to humankind. It was literally worshipped. And today it continues to give, but more so within the context of mezcal production:

• Because the oven is airtight, the wood at the bottom of the pit does not burn down to ash. It becomes charcoal. Three of the main uses for the carbonized fuel are: for cooking by the paenquero’s family, for resale to others who similarly use it since it is sold for much less than traditionally produced charcoal, and as fertilizer for growing agave and other crops.

• The ash from the still is also used as fertilizer.

• The bazazo, that is the waste fiber removed from the still after the first distillation, is used for more than insulating the rocks from the piñas. It is utilized as compost, mulch, when mixed with soil as a starter for baby agave plants, and in making adobe bricks for home and other construction. It is used to make paper, planters (which can then be put directly in the ground when the roots get too big), filling ruts and potholes in dirt roads, and as substratum for growing mushrooms commercially in the Sierra Norte region of Oaxaca.

• When the clay pots break in the course of ancestral mezcal production, the shape often remains intact, so they are used as planters.

• The leaves and the quiote (flower stalk) left on the ground after the piñas are been harvested are dried and used primarily as firewood by other villagers; to fuel kilns for making pottery; comals for making tortillas; pots for cooking moles, salsas, coffee; and a plethora of other purposes. The quiote, which can extend to 30 feet, is also used as a construction material.

• Leftover tail end from the second distillation with its low alcohol content, is used for curing containers, readying them for use in storage, transport and sale of mezcal.

However water is the issue which has not yet been adequately addressed. If not the lifeblood, then certainly it is one of the most important aspects of mezcal production, both as the coolant for condensers and as one of the two principal components of the agave distillate.

There has been a concern that because of the dramatic increase in mezcal production, the effluent which is often simply discarded after the initial distillation and left to filter into the water table, can potentially harm humans because of its chemical composition. While there are efforts being spearheaded to address the problem in the nearby town of Santiago Matatlán, through design of purification facilities of sorts, change comes slowly. At the Chichicapam co-op, during the dry season when water is the scarcest, it is sometimes re-used as the coolant for the copper serpentine condensers. But more generally water is in short supply in the village both for adding to the baked crushed agave in the fermentation process, and for use by the villagers more generally. The well at the Fortunato Hernández household has been dry for two years.

As contrasted with copper distillation wherein the water in the tank housing the copper serpentine need not be continuously exchanged (once a week is sufficient though not optimum), at palenques distilling in clay the water must be continuously exchanged. Often it is simply allowed to filter into the ground.

Epilogue

Palenqueros will come to realize that they must further adapt in order to economically benefit from the increased demand for artisanal mezcal. This is in both towns and villages where for now water remains plentiful, as well as in other areas in need of more water. Water is far from the only concern. Ingenuity of the human condition has brought them to where they now are, by living permaculture. And so there is good reason to believe that the villagers using the Chichicapam co-op, and palenqueros elsewhere in Oaxaca, will continue to address the issues facing them now, and into the future. The foregoing examples are but a fraction of how permaculture works in the artisanal mezcal industry. As these Oaxacans continue to adapt, they will address any and all adversity which comes their way in terms of water and otherwise, advancing both permanent agriculture and permanent culture, that is, permaculture.

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1 Why Are All The Animals Going To The Barn Lunging a Horse Successfully – Tips to Get Your Horse Going Forward, Relaxed & Willingly on the Lung

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Lunging a Horse Successfully – Tips to Get Your Horse Going Forward, Relaxed & Willingly on the Lung

“My horse won’t lunge” is a common complaint of many horse owners.  Lunging can be a positive and effective way of working with a horse, but only if it is done correctly.  Unfortunately, many people do not understand how to correctly lunge a horse and then blame the horse when he or she does not go forward.  Horses, being prey animals, are programmed to move – to run.  If a horse refused to go forward a good horse person will look for the cause and ask “what could be stopping a flight animal from moving forward”?

 

1)  Check the environment.  Are you trying to lunge the horse in an area where he or she does not feel safe?  Horses will not go forward into areas they perceive as potentially dangerous.  Because they are prey animals, they need to be able to see an escape route.  They are so claustrophobic that even going forward into the corner of an arena can be stressful for them.  That is why so many horses cut corners and/or counter ben when they are ridden through the end of the arena furthest from the barn.  Try lunging your horse in an area where he or she feels less stressed like  the end of the arena closest to the barn

 

2) Check your equipment.  Horses are so sensitive that they can feel a fly land on their skin.  Check all your tack to ensure there is nothing causing any discomfort or pain.  An ill-fitting halter, bridle or saddle can cause pain that may not be obvious at first glance.  The bit should be the right length and width for your horse’s mouth.  Wider bits are often thought to be “softer” but will be uncomfortable for a horse with a narrower space between his or her upper and lower jaw.  A bit that is not the right length will either move around too much or pinch the corners of the mouth.  Check for any sharp areas on the bit that may have developed over time due to wear & tear.  If the bridle’s brow band is too tight, it will cause discomfort by putting pressure on your horse’s sensitive ears.  Make sure your saddle fits correctly and is not creating an pressure points.  Look for areas of wear on both the saddle and girth that could be pinching or poking the horse’s body.

 

3) Check for lameness.  Make sure your horse is 100% sound.  Palpate along his or her neck and back for any signs of soreness to pressure.  If your horse flinches when you apply light pressure on the muscles along the spine, you might need to get him or her a massage or chiropractic treatment.  You definitely need to determine the cause of the soreness.  Check the feet and legs for any sign of heat, swelling, bruising or tenderness.  Some soreness may notshow up as obvious lameness, but could be enough to make it uncomfortable for the horse to work on a circle.

 

4) Improve your technique. Once you have eliminated any environmental or physical causes that may be preventing the horse from going forward, it is time to look at your lunging technique. 

 

When you are lunging, you are sending or driving the horse around you in a circle.  The horse will mirror the alignment of your body and the circle you are walking.  The correct position for lunging a horse is to stand facing towards the head with your core (belly button) aimed at the girth, your shoulder furthest from the head open, and your hip nearest to the horse aimed towards the horse’s inside hip.  Picture a maitre d’ or usher guiding someone to their seat.  The near arm guides the person from behind while the far arm is open showing the guest where the seat is.  If the “guide were to put their arm in front of the guest, he or she is blocked from moving forward.  Another way to get a feel for this position is to push a one wheeled wheel barrow in a large circle.  If you want the wheelbarrow to move in a circle to the left, you must angle your body slightly into the arc of the desired circle.  Your left shoulder (on the inside of the arc) will be open or slightly behind the right (outside) shoulder.  Your hips will be aligned with your shoulders.  Your right foot will step forward and slightly out of the arc.  Your left foot will step forward and slightly towards the outside of the arc.  Try taking the same position and stepping in the same way when you lunge your horse.  Picture lines of energy coming from your body as you do this.  Make sure none of the lines of energy go directly towards or in front of the horse’s head. 

Tell your horse to go forward by swinging the end of your lunge line or the lash of a lunge whip towards the flank area.  The flank is the “button” where one horse pushes or bites another horse to tell him or her to “go forward”.  Move the rope or the whip’s lash from the ground upwards towards the horse.  For more push, continue with this movement increasing the RPM’s (rounds per minute) of the lash in this circular movement.  This movement is much less aggressive to the horse than snapping the whip.

 

Once you have ensured the horse’s physical and psychological comfort, are working with the correct alignment between yourself and the horse, and pushing the right “buttons”, your horse should go forward in a relaxed, willing and cooperative way.

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