A Reserch Paper On Animal Abuse In The Food Industry Biogas Fueling the Olympic Torch

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Biogas Fueling the Olympic Torch

China is playing a leading role in the field of biogas—processes by which we can turn our waste, animal waste, and food waste into a high-grade, usable commodity. The topic of using faecal matter as an energy source ranges from taboo in some societies to widespread acceptance and use in others. In China, it fits into the latter category. Here’s what China’s National Development and Reform Commission has on the books for biogas.

In China alone there are a billion and a half people with as many livestock, poultry and landfills, all providing methane nutrients every day. It is hard for China to overlook the idea of ​​turning something that has been discarded into a commodity for electricity generation. China plans to have an installed capacity of bioenergy projects reaching 5.5 million kilowatts by 2010, but rising to 30 million kilowatts by 2020, a 600 percent increase in the next 11 years.

Biogas is a combustible mixture of gases produced by microorganisms when livestock manure and other biological wastes are allowed to ferment in the absence of air in closed containers. The main components of biogas are methane (60 percent), carbon dioxide (35 percent), and small amounts of water vapor, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. Biogas is mainly used as a fuel, like natural gas, while the dissolved mixture of liquids and solids ‘bio-slurry’ and ‘bio-slurry’ is mainly used as organic fertilizer for crops. Chinese companies are now finding many other uses for biogas, bio-sludge and bio-sludge in China.

This development touches on an important aspect of Peak Oil: in a peak oil world there will be less fertilizer production and therefore higher fertilizer prices, which means higher agricultural costs that must be passed on as prices higher food. You can open Pandora’s Box when you explain how dependent on oil the agriculture, transportation and processed food manufacturing industries are. Increased transportation costs to move food from the field to the factory to your plate. Fertilizers and pesticides rely on natural gas and petroleum-based chemicals for production, and agricultural machinery runs on liquid fossil fuels. The simplest equation is: Higher crude oil prices = Higher food costs.

China began to use biogas digesters in earnest in 1958 in a campaign to exploit the multiple functions of biogas production, which solved the problem of manure disposal and improved sanitation. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Chinese government realized the value of this natural resource in rural areas, and this was an important first step in modernizing its agriculture. Six million digesters were installed in China, which became the biogas capital of the world including the ‘China Dome’ digester which is still in use today, especially for small-scale domestic use. China’s 2003-2010 National Rural Biogas Construction Plan is to increase the households using biogas by another 31 million to a total of 50 million, so the usage rate will reach 20% of the total rural households.

By the end of 2006, the total number of households using biogas reached 22 million, with a total annual biogas production of about 8.5 billion cubic meters, and had built biogas pits for 22 million households in rural areas and provided more more than 5,200 large and medium-sized biogas projects based around livestock and poultry farms. Typical eight cubic meter biogas pits are capable of providing 80 percent of the cooking energy needed for a family of four, according to the Energy and Zoology Division within the Ministry of Agriculture. By 2020, about 300 million rural residents will use biogas as their main fuel.

During the current 10th Five-Year Plan, China is developing 2,200 on-grid energy biogas engineering projects for waste from intensive livestock and poultry, treating more than 60 million tons of organic manure per year, in addition to 137,000 digesters of installed for wastewater treatment. . According to the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Geography, the total annual production of organic manure and night soil can theoretically generate about 130 billion cubic meters of methane, equivalent to 93 million tons of coal, and 80 percent of industrial wastewater can also be used for produce methane. . The number of large-scale grid power plants is planned to increase to 30,000 by 2030, a 15-fold increase.

As the idea of ​​cleaning up the environment begins to gain attention in China, tackling sludge from urban and industrial wastewater treatment that has traditionally been dumped in landfills, oceans and waterways is taking center stage with an eye-catching campaign “Recycling waste in a source”. The Chinese central government is showing great interest in medium- and large-scale biogas plants and integrated agricultural and agro-industrial biomass with waste treatment plants to reduce water pollution.

To facilitate the use of biogas, the government had set up biogas technical training courses in Shanxi province and in 2005 trained 6,000 farmers, 4,000 of whom obtained the National Professional Biogas Technician Certificate. The Ministry of Agriculture which administers the Chengdu Biogas Scientific Research Institute (BIOMA) also operates an international training and research center in Chengdu, Sichuan Province. Farmers from Yunnan province who graduated from the course are experimenting with a “four-in-one” biogas plant that includes a piggery and a household toilet to provide the raw material, then uses the methane to heat a greenhouse for growing vegetables and increases carbon dioxide inside the greenhouse to increase plant yield.

Biogas resource programs across China are just beginning to use industrial waste from other sources; alcohol production and paper mills. The Tianguan Distillery, which consumes two million tons of store-bought grains a year to produce denatured alcohol, is now recycling distiller waste to produce biogas in a 30,000 cubic meter digester, supplying more than 20,000 households or 20 percent of Nanyang City. population.

Hongzhi Alcohol Corporation located in Mianzhu, Sichuan Province, which is the largest alcohol plant in southwest China, uses organic industrial wastewater, sewage and sludge to produce biogas. The city of Mianzhu treats 98 percent of municipal wastewater, including wastewater from hospitals through digesters with a total capacity of 10,000 cubic meters.

Chenming Paper Co., which generates 300 tons of sludge per day, is augmenting its initial biogas program using pulp waste. The same applies to intensive animal husbandry in many large or medium-sized livestock and poultry farms on the outskirts of cities. China’s energy production is starting to transform into local energy production for local people by local industry using local raw material, which is a model to get used to in a world of high energy prices: local production, local consumption.

As our distant globalized production point, long supply chain lifestyle changes from year to year as the availability of crude oil, known as “Peak Oil”, we as a world will have to we find substitutes for crude oil to supply basic chemicals for industrial and manufacturing processes. The use of biogas directly for cooking or cogeneration of electricity and heat is particularly possible when the biogas is used at or near the place of production. Biogas methane can also be used to make methanol, an organic solvent and an important chemical for the production of formaldehyde, chloromethane, organic glass and composite fibers. Good quality compost and electricity produced are added bonuses.

Finally, biogas can be used to extend the storage of fruits and grains. The atmosphere of methane and carbon dioxide inhibits metabolism, thereby reducing the formation of ethylene in fruits and grains, extending shelf life, and the same atmosphere kills harmful insects, mold and disease-causing bacteria.

My mind’s eye sees a future where food storage will be in local communities as the Just-in-Time distribution system will encounter problems as fuel becomes more expensive and worldwide disposable income is reduced. I envision a return to a weekly or bi-weekly bulk dry goods distribution system that requires local communities to store their own grains and bulk food using biogas to keep pests at bay. and rodents out of the food supply. Small shipments, as we are used to today, will have to be restructured into a wholesale delivery system, the concept of a box from a company halfway around the world sitting on a store shelf should be reduced by higher oil prices. raw. Foods from supermarkets and hypermarts packaged in small individual boxes, bags or wrapped in plastic will have their own set of problems to overcome with delivery and production. Which gives biogas an advantage by offering solutions to two potential side effects in the future due to the continued increase in crude oil prices, food preservation and fertilizers.

What I never hear mentioned is a backup trash system. We are required by law in many countries to have backup batteries and generators for critical electrical systems in the event of a power outage. Is there a backup fertilizer system for our food production in the event of oil shortages or long-term supply disruptions? Biogas production can provide some protection. It’s hardly an Olympic step, but it’s a step.

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