A Major One In Animals Is Which Allows Muscle Contraction A Comparison Between the Human and Ruminant Digestive System

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A Comparison Between the Human and Ruminant Digestive System

HUMAN DIGESTION:

Food is put into the mouth where it is chewed, mixed with saliva which is secreted by the glands in the mouth. After chewing, part of the food is collected on the tongue. It is then swallowed and the opening to the larynx is closed by a small flap of tissue called the epiglottis. This flap prevents food from entering the respiratory tract. If any food passes into this tract, a reflux action occurs by coughing to expel the food.

Food passes from the esophagus to the stomach, the contractions of the muscular wall of the stomach ensure further mixing and mechanical breakdown of the food, which at the same time mixes with the gastric juice secreted by the stomach.

The stomach has a mucous layer and is protected by gastric juice which contains enzymes and hydrochloric acid. Food is broken down into smaller particles for easier absorption into the bloodstream, and the rest of the food passes into the small intestine and duodenum through the pyloric sphincter valve, a muscular ring at the end of the stomach and intestines.

In the small intestine, the rhythmic movements of the walls move the food and mix it with the digestive fluids, which include the pancreatic and bile juices (bile is produced by the liver and stored by the gall bladder) Further digestion then takes place as result of the action of enzymes present in these fluids.

Absorption of digestive nutrients occurs mainly through the mucosa of the small intestine. Rhythmic bowel movements force unabsorbed food, and wastes are excreted from the blood into the large intestine, where water is absorbed from the intestinal walls and the partially dehydrated material passes into the rectum from which it is excreted from the body. through the anus as feces.

LIMENTARY RUMINANT eyeflowing

The name ruminant means “Chewing the cud” and is a name given to those toed, cloven hoofed mammals such as cattle, sheep, goats are ruminants.

Other groups of ruminant-like animals include antelopes, deer, camels, llamas, hippos, sloths, and kangaroos.

The ruminant has a stomach consisting of four compartments (camels have three.)

ROMANIA:

Food is partially chewed, then swallowed and passes into the first compartment called the rumen. The large stomach has no digestive juices or secretory glands and the food is attacked by large numbers of living protozoa, microbes and bacteria which are already present in the stomach walls of ruminants. The breakdown of cellulose, of which plants are mainly composed, takes place in this part of the stomach, and the food is occasionally returned to the mouth in small quantities and slowly chewed into a pulp, and when the food is swallowed again, it enters. a second compartment called the reticulum.

RETICULUM:

This section of the stomach further breaks down the cellulose and passes it to the third compartment called the omasum.

OMASUM:

The omasum contains large leaf-like structures that increase the surface area for effective water absorption, where muscles agitate and reduce it further until it enters the fourth compartment, called the abomasum.

ABOMASSUM:

“Real Stomach” A stomach like ours. In this organ the gastric juice is secreted, it contains hydrochloric acid which kills most microbes and begins to digest them and their contents are then absorbed to provide essential vitamins, minerals and amino acids.

Ruminants have specialized metabolism due to the presence of digestive bacteria. Protein needs are provided by rumen bacteria which use simple inorganic urea and sulfate substances to produce these proteins. This is a big difference between ruminants and other animals because they make their own proteins. Protein is a dietary requirement of all other animals.

TEETH:

In most ruminants (cows, sheep, goats) there is an absence of upper incisors – replaced by a strong, well-formed “Dental Pad”, also with lower incisors. Well developed molars and premolars for grinding movement are “Lateral”. The toothless gap between the incisors and premolars allows the tongue to manipulate food. Chewing movements act as a stimulant, leading to an increase in saliva, especially on the side where chewing is done. In cattle, up to 200 liters can be produced in 24 hours. Saliva is rich in bicarbonate, which serves to neutralize fatty acids produced by fermentation.

DIFFERENCES:

Ruminants

Specialized tongue and lip for gripping and tearing.

Well-developed molars and premolars for grinding, the movement is “lateral”.

In most ruminants the upper teeth are replaced by the “Dental Pad”.

A gap between the premolars and molars allows the tongue to manipulate food in small amounts before swallowing.

It is taken orally in food.

Complex digestive system (four stomachs).

Regurgitation of cud for chewing at rest, a set of teeth for life, teeth wear flat, with age.

Protein needs are provided by rumen bacteria.

Herbivores – no meat.

People:

The movement of the upper and lower teeth is “vertical” The incisors and canines produce cutting action, used for cutting food, the premolars and molars for grinding and crushing.

Two sets of teeth – loss through decay and improper nutrition – are replaced with prostheses (False teeth).

Food is taken in the mouth.

Digestive system (a stomach).

Protein is a dietary requirement and is provided by the intake of various foods.

Vomiting is more common in carnivores and omnivores. Forceful expulsion of stomach contents from the mouth.

Variety of foods to get other different nutrients.

Illness, weather changes, nervousness and stress can affect the digestive processes.

Omnivores – meat and plants.

similarities:

Food, water and oxygen to sustain life, we need similar nutrients and produce waste products.

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