A Group Of People Or Animals Of A Particular Kind Groups and Individuals

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Groups and Individuals

What’s the big deal about groups? What are the characteristics of groups? Entiativity is how coherent a group appears (Baron, Byrne, & Branscombe, 2005). Groups are characterized by roles, status, norms and cohesiveness. Roles can make people behave differently than usual. For example, a woman manager behaves differently, perhaps in a more masculine way, at work than she would at home, in a group like a family. Physical characteristics (such as beauty and height) and behaviors help people gain status in a group. An example of this statement is the movie or Hollywood industry, where good-looking actors and actresses can have a shot, even if they are not talented in acting. Another example of this statement is the corporate world. Super-tall CEOs are perceived as more powerful than shorter ones, and people often fear tall people more. Being aware of group dynamics can ensure a successful social life.

In addition, if members like each other, then the group is cohesive and tends to remain a group. Oddly enough, one way to gain status is to express anger. In general, the benefits of participating in a group are: self-knowledge, improved status, social change, and progress toward important goals. Some costs or disadvantages of groups are: heavy demands on energy, time, and resources, and loss of personal freedom.

Groups, like friendships and other relationships, must be nurtured and cultivated. Education takes money, time and energy. Individuals leave groups when the group ceases to reflect their beliefs and values. When the desire to join a group is very strong, prospective members are willing to put themselves through painful initiations, such as for Ivy League fraternities, as portrayed in some movies, such as the movie “The Social Network” , which was released last year. , in 2010.

Additionally, having an audience or co-actors can influence an individual’s or group’s performance. For example, artists, such as dancers, or Cirque du Soleil performers, or Olympians, practice hard for years to perform in front of as many people as possible. If a person knows that she or he will be in front of an audience, as opposed to alone, she or he will dress and have a more appropriate attitude. Some exhibitionists can thrive on an audience. An example is the famous and touristy Hyde Park Speaker’s Corner in London, UK, where anyone can get up in front of an audience or crowd and say whatever they like, whether it’s good or bad! This effect is called social facilitation-inhibition.

Nudge theory states that an audience can either increase or decrease the level of performance, depending on whether the dominant responses, for a given circumstance, are correct or not. Distraction-conflict theory states that the audience induces conflicting urges to focus on the performance task and the audience. Increased arousal may then be associated with short attention spans in performers. This social facilitation also occurs in animals. Dogs and rabbits are especially known for their short attention spans and are known to be forgetful and easily distracted, which usually makes them even more lovable.

It is also important to note that when several people work on the same task, a social drift can occur and people perform worse. People tend to perform worse on simple tasks and better on complex tasks in front of an audience. For example, if a person is at a small karaoke lounge in his or her neighborhood, then the person is likely to feel less pressure than if she or he were to perform a set of songs at a stadium concert and, therefore, the person will leave room for error. To eliminate social frustration, it is best to assign specific and unique individual tasks that are important to the individual and to which the individual is committed. To maximize individual performance and combat social loss, it is recommended to: study alone and take tests in public, work on simple tasks in front of an audience, ensure that individual contribution can be individually assessed, work only with people dedicated and ensure contributions are unique, versus redundant or redundant.

Another group characteristic is that when people are part of large crowds, their self-awareness and social identity decrease. In addition, they adopt current norms that often allow impulsive and unrestricted behavior. Some examples are a music concert and a sports game in stadiums, during which there is additional police force, given the possibility of crowds. In these scenarios, offenders may feel that they are less likely to be caught or punished and thrive on surveillance.

In terms of group dynamics, cooperation is a common aspect in society. Cooperation does not always occur, even when it should, because of social dilemmas in which some people can increase their benefits by deviating. An example of a social dilemma is the prisoner’s dilemma. If the two parties involved choose to cooperate or confess, versus competing or not confessing, then they get more favorable outcomes. Cooperation is facilitated by strong reciprocity, communication and personal attitude towards cooperation.

Extroverted individuals, versus introverts, are more likely to seek and enjoy collaboration. Some people are very competitive and live a very competitive lifestyle in all aspects of their lives. Most people naturally tend to react, according to human evolutionary history. Creatures that cooperate have a higher chance of surviving and reproducing than creatures that don’t. In summary, not everyone is always up for sharing the work. Most people have experienced responsible and hardworking people, within their groups, versus lazy or lazy.

On the other hand, conflict occurs when an individual perceives a discrepancy or incompatibility between his or her interest and the interest of the group. Misattributions, personal traits, poor communication, and considering one’s own views as objective can all generate conflict. The most effective ways to reduce conflicts are the promotion of superordinate goals and bargaining or negotiation. Super-ordinate goals are achieved by the cooperation of people, with individual goals that are in conflict with each other. Some examples occur in religious groups, workplace groups, and friend groups. Members may also separate emotionally, develop new and different needs, and/or mature socially at different rates.

What is group justice? Group members want justice. Justice is evaluated as outcomes and is called distributive justice. Justice can also be evaluated as a procedure and called procedural justice. Finally, justice can be valued as kind treatment and called transactional (interpersonal) justice. When someone feels that he has been wronged, then he takes action towards restoring justice. Being spiritual can help you let go and believe that people don’t always have to bring others to justice or become “the police.” Life, circumstances, or the “universe,” or energy or karma, as some people call it, can do a better job than humans in restoring justice, and thus individuals need not take risks in caring for it.

Often, in the news, people hear that someone commits crimes and does not come clean in front of the authorities and gets away with the law. Years later, people hear that the same criminals got sick and died. This is an example that not everything has to be “an eye for an eye”. Sometimes, an individual must learn that it is time to let go of certain individuals, groups and/or activities. In case some people put it. is necessary to bring someone to justice, then some common overt actions have been protests, and some covert actions have been employee theft (employees steal from the company, to deal with perceived injustice) or sabotage or suggestions that others deserve fairer treatment.

It is useful to know that some strategies to reach an integrative agreement or a better outcome than simple compromise are: expansion of the pie (available resources are increased), non-specific compensation (one side gets what it wants and the other side offset on an unrelated issue), logrolling (both sides make concessions on low-priority issues in exchange for high-priority concessions), rollover (neither side gets what it originally wanted, but a third option , in the interest of both, is presented) and, lastly, cost reduction (one party is satisfied and the cost to the other party is reduced). Super-ordinate goals connect, as opposed to separate, the interests of two different parties.

What is a possible big myth about groups and individuals? It may actually be a myth that groups make better decisions than individuals because groups can experience that group polarization effect and make more extreme decisions than individuals. Some horrific examples of this effect would be the Holocaust, and others like it, including actual, war-like events. Groups can also be influenced by groupthink or assuming they are right and rejecting all other information. Groups are likely to accept in-group criticism and reject the same criticism from out-groups.

According to distributive justice or impartiality, groups tend to be part of biased information processing, adhere to common values, or get what they want. Politics may unconsciously use distributive justice. Devil’s advocate and creating authentic disagreements in groups are examples of how to improve decision making (Baron, Byrne and Branscombe, 2005). In the devil’s advocate strategy, one person is responsible for disagreeing with the majority. This strategy forces others to re-evaluate, re-discuss and think more carefully, because people have to create a new argument to answer the devil’s advocate criticism.

Authentic dissent is like the devil’s advocate, except that no one in particular is assigned the role of dissent, but one or more people simply begin to disagree with the majority. In conclusion, groups are necessary for healthy social-emotional human development. Being aware of the group dynamics explained above can ensure a successful social life.


Baron, RA, Byrne, DR, & Branscombe, NR (2005) Social Psychology. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

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