A Characteristic Of Every Animal Hormone Is That The Hormone Beer Making Technique – Step by Step Guide on How to Make Beer

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Beer Making Technique – Step by Step Guide on How to Make Beer


Balley’s conversion

To be fermented by yeast, the food reserve of barley, starch must be converted by enzymes into simple sugars. Two enzymes, a- and b- amylase, carry out the conversion. The latter is present in barley – but the former occurs only during the germination of the grain.


Malting begins by soaking harvested barley with less than 12 percent moisture in water at 120 to 150 C (550 + 600) for 40 to 50 hours. During this soaking period, the barley can be drained and given an air break, or the slope can be forcefully aerated. As the grain absorbs water, its volume increases by about 25 percent and the moisture content reaches about 45 percent. A white-rooted heather, called chit, bursts through the husk, and the broken barley is then removed from the slope for germination.


Activated by water and oxygen, the root embryo of barley corn secretes a plant hormone called gibberellic acid, which initiates amylase synthesis. A- and b-amylases then convert the corn starch molecules into sugars that the embryo can use as food. Other enzymes, such as proteases and b-glucanases, attack the cell wall around the starch grains, converting insoluble proteins and complex sugars (called glucans) into soluble amino acids and glucose.


Green malt is dried to remove most of the moisture, leaving 5 percent in lager and 2 percent in traditional ale malts. This process stops enzyme activity but leaves 40 to 60 percent in an active state. Curing at higher temperatures promotes a reaction between amino acids and sugars to form melanoidins, which give color and flavor to malt.

In the first stage of the kiln, a high flow of dry air at 500C (120F) for lager malt and 650C (1500F) for ale malt is maintained through a bed of green malt. This reduces the moisture content from 45 to 25 percent. A second drying stage removes the more tightly bound water, the temperature rises to 700 – 750 (1600 – 1700 F) and the moisture content drops to 12 percent. In the final curing stage, the temperature is raised to 750 – 900 C (1700 – 1950 F) for lager and 900 to 1050 C for ale. The finished malt is then cooled and cleaned to remove the roots.



For efficient water extraction, the malt must be ground. Early grinding processes used stones driven by hand or by water or animal power, but modern brewing uses mills with mechanical rotations. The design of the mill and the gap between the rollers are important to obtain the correct size reduction of the malt. The objective is to keep the husk relatively intact while breaking down the modified brittle starch into particles.

Puree Mix

Ground malt, called gris, is mixed with water, providing conditions in which starch, other molecules and enzymes are dissolved and rapid enzyme action occurs. The solvent-rich liquid produced in the mash is called work. Traditionally, mash can be of one of two distinct types. The simplest process, melt blending, uses a well-modified malt, two to three volumes of water per volume of grist, a single vessel (called a mashtun), and a single temperature in the range of 620 to 670 C ( 1450 to 1500 F). . With well-modified malt, the breakdown of proteins and glucans has already occurred at the malting stage, and at 650C the starch easily gelatinizes and the amylases become very active. Less modified malt, however, benefits from a period of mashing at lower temperatures to allow the proteins and glucans to break down. This requires some form of temperature programming, which is achieved by boiling mash. After the grate has been pureed at 350 to 400C (950 to 1050F), a portion is removed, boiled, and added again. Mashing two or three of these boils raises the temperature in stages to 650C. The boiling process, traditional in lager brewing, uses four to six volumes of water per volume of mash and requires a second vessel called a mash pot.

Other starch sources that gelatinize at 550 to 650C can be mashed together with malt. Wheat flour and cornflakes (maize) can be added directly to the mash, while cornmeal and rice grains must first be boiled in order to gelatinize. Their use requires a third container, the cereal pot.

The modern mashing system uses mixing grates and mashing mixers, which are efficiently stirred and temperature-programmed mashing vessels. Enzymes of bacterial and fungal origin can be added as helpers. Ales and lagers are mashed in the same equipment, but they require different temperature programs and grill composition. Modern breweries often practice high-gravity brewing, in which highly concentrated worts are brewed, fermented and then diluted, allowing more beer to be brewed on the same equipment.

Wort division

The mashes used in infusion mash is equipped with a false base containing precisely machined holes through which the husk, retained during grinding, cannot pass the blocked husk, thus forming a filter bed that removes solids from wart as it drains, leaving a spent residue. grains. Separation of the wort takes four to sixteen hours. Because through extrusion, the solids are sprayed or dispersed with water at 700C.

The brewer transfers the mash to a separator vessel called a lautertun, where a shallower bed is formed, allowing for a faster flow time of about 2 ½ hours. Large modern breweries use lautertun or special mash filters to speed up the flow and perform 10 or 12 mashes per day. 97 percent of soluble material is obtained, and 75 percent of this is fermentable. Wort is approximately 10 percent sugar and contains amino acids, salts, vitamins, carbohydrates and small amounts of protein.


Aromatic value of Hops

Certain varieties of hops (Humulus lupulus) are selected and bred for the bitter and aromatic qualities they impart to the drink. The female flowers, or cones, produce small glands that contain chemicals valuable in brewing. Humulones are the chemical compounds extracted during the boiling of the wart. A part of them, a-acids, is isomerized by heat to form the corresponding iso-acids, which are responsible for the characteristic bitter aroma of beer.

Traditionally, dried hop cones are added whole to the boiled wort, but powdered compressed hops are often used because they are extracted more efficiently. In addition, hop components can be extracted from solvents such as liquid carbon dioxide and added in this form to the wort or, after isomerization, to the finished beer.

Heating and Cooling

Boiling the kettle takes 60 to 90 minutes, sterilizing the wort, evaporating, off-flavors and precipitating insoluble proteins. The body and spent hops are then removed to a separator where the hop cones form the filter bed. A faster pool separator is also used in modern practice. This device is a cylindrical vessel into which the wart is pumped at a tangent, the circulating motion of the vortex causing the solids to form a cone at the bottom. The drained card is cooled, previously in shallow troughs or by flowing down a slope. Cooled plate, but now in a plate heat exchanger. The latter is a closed, hygienic container in which the hot wort flows along the plates while the cold water passes along the other side in the opposite direction. Oxygen is added at this stage and the cooled liquid passes into the fermentation vessels.


Simple sugars in the mill are converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Fermentation is carried out by yeast, which is added or dropped in cantons at three kilograms per hectoliter, giving 10,000,000 cells per milliliter of wort.

Brewing is unique among fermentation industries in that yeast from one fermentation is used to pitch the next. This means that hygienic conditions and rigorous quality control are necessary. A high percentage of living cells and freedom from bacteria and other yeasts are important quality considerations.

Traditional open-topped earthenware fermentation vessels gave way to round, wooden and later square copper-clad fermenters and brewery fermentation systems that developed around the mechanism used to separate the yeast from freshly fermented or green beer. Top fermentations, in which the yeast rises to the surface, require the most elaborate systems, but most brewing operations now use more hygienically operated closed vessels and bottom fermentation. These vessels, erected outside the brewery, have a capacity of several thousand hectoliters (one hectoliter – 26 gallons) and are made of stainless steel. Temperature control is achieved automatically by circulating cold liquid in jackets located on the vessel wall.

The temperature of the must in the roasting is 150C to 180C for ale and 70 to 120C for lager. As fermentation continues, the specific gravity drops as the sugars are converted by the yeast. The extent of fermentation is governed by the composition of the wort and the amount of fermentable sugar remaining in the matured beer. During fermentation, the yeast multiplies five to eight times and generates heat. The temperature is allowed to rise, until it reaches 200 to 230 C for ale and 120 to 170 C for lager. At that point the fermentation is cooled to 150C for ale and 40C for lager, significantly slowing the action of the yeasts. The yeast is then removed and the green beer, still containing about 500,000 yeast cells per milliliter, is transferred to a conditioning or maturation vessel, where a secondary fermentation can take place. In traditional brewing, the main fermentation stage took seven days for ales and three weeks or more for lagers, these times have been shortened to two to four days and seven to ten days by modern practices using more efficient fermentation vessels.


Primer and Krausening

A slow secondary fermentation of residual or added sugar (called primings), or in lager brewing, the addition of actively fermenting wort (called Krausen) generates carbon dioxide, which is taken up and cleanses the green beer of compounds undesirable unstable. The constant yeast activity also removes strong flavoring compounds such as diacetyl. Allowing pressure to build up in the sealed container then increases the level of carbonation, giving the beer its “body”. In traditional brewing, large volumes of ale were conditioned. In tanks for seven days at 150C, while lagers matured at 00C (320F) for up to three months. These long ripening periods were caused by the precipitation of protein-tannin complexes, which at low temperatures form “cold fogs” that are slow to release. Modern practice accelerates this process by adding excess tannin, cleaning with proteins or tanning adsorbents, or using enzymes to degrade the proteins.


Traditional, or “real,” ales are packaged in jars. Sugar fillers, clarifying agents such as glass fibers and whole hops are added and the beer is transferred to the point of sale, where it is carefully leased to the appropriate level of conditioning before being sold.

Beer produced on a large scale in modern breweries is kept oxygen-free, filtered through cellulose or diatomaceous earth to remove all yeast, and packaged at 00C under carbon dioxide pressure. Beer produced by high-gravity brewing is diluted to the desired alcohol concentration, immediately before packaging, with oxygen-free carbonated water. Most beers packaged in bottles or metal cans are pasteurized in the package by heating to 600C for five to 20 minutes. Beer is also packaged in metal cans, which are pasteurized in the package by heating in 50 liter capacity metal containers after pasteurization at 700C for five to 20 seconds. Modern packaging machines are designed to operate hygienically, exclude air and work at speeds of 2000 cans or bottles per minute.

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