A Central Nervous System Is Lacking In Animals That Have Medical Importance of Mumps

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Medical Importance of Mumps

Morphology and biochemical properties

The mumps virus particle has the typical paramyxovirus morphology. The biological properties of hemagglutination, neuraminidase and hemolysin are also typical. Hemagglutination can be inhibited by mumps virus-specific antisera and this inhibition can be used to measure antibody responses. Similarly, the nucleocapsid of the virus particle forms the major component of the complement-fixing “S” (soluble) antigen.

Animal susceptibility and virus growth

Hemagglutinin, hemolysin and virus infectivity are destroyed by heating to 56 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes. Skin test antigen and complement fixation antigen are more heat stable.

Reactions to the physical and chemical growth of the virus

Hemagglutinin, hemolysin and virus infectivity are destroyed by heating to 56 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes. Skin test antigen and complement fixation antigen ate more heat stable.

Pathogenesis and Pathology

There are two theories regarding the pathogenesis of mumps.

  • The virus travels from the mouth via Stensen’s duct to the parotid gland, where it undergoes primary multiplication. This is followed by a generalized viremia and localization in the testes, ovaries, pancreas, thyroid or brain.
  • Primary replication occurs in the surface epithelium of the respiratory tract. This is followed by a generalized viremia and a simultaneous localization in the salivary glands and other organs.

Minor tissue damage is associated with uncomplicated mumps. The ducts of the parotid glands show epithelial desquamation and polymorphonuclear cells are present in the lumen. There is interstitial edema and lymphocytic infiltration. With severe orchitis, the testicle is overloaded. Punctate hemorrhage and degeneration of the epithelium of the seminiferous tubules are observed. Central nervous system pathology can vary from perivascular edema to inflammatory reaction, glial reaction, hemorrhage, or demyelination.

Clinical features

The incubation period is usually 18-21 days. A prodromal period of illness and anorexia is followed by rapid enlargement of the parotid and other salivary glands. Swelling may be confirmed in one parotid gland, or one gland may enlarge several days before the other. Enlargement of the gland is accompanied by pain, especially when tasting the acidic substance. Salivary adenitis is usually accompanied by a low temperature and lasts about a week.

Testicles and ovaries may be affected, especially puberty. 20% of males over the age of 13 who are infected with the mumps virus develop orchitis, which is often unilateral and usually does not lead to sterility. Because of the lack of elasticity of the tunica albuginea, which does not allow the inflamed testis to swell, testicular atrophy may follow secondary to pressure necrosis. Secondary infertility does not occur in women because the ovary, which has no such limiting membrane, can swell when inflamed.

Mumps accounts for 10-15% of aseptic meningitis seen in the US and is more common in men than women. Meningoencephalitis usually appears 5-7 days after inflammation of the salivary glands, but can occur simultaneously or in the absence of parotitis and is usually self-limiting. Cerebrospinal fluid shows pleocystosis (10-2000/nL, mainly lymphocytes) that may persist after clinical recovery.

Rare complications of mumps include:

  • A self-limiting polyarthritis that resolves without residual deformity;
  • Pancreatitis associated with transient by-perglycemia, glycosuria and steatorrhoea (it has been suggested that diabetes mellitus may occasionally follow);
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  • Thyroiditis; AND
  • Unilateral nerve deafness (hearing loss is complete and permanent)
  • Mumps can be a potential cause in the production of aqueductal stenosis and hydrocephalus in children. Injection of mumps virus into sucking hamsters has produced similar lesions.

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