A Bad Economy Reduced Funds For Animal Control And The Animal Farm By George Orwell – A Novella Of Didactic Language And Political Ideology

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Animal Farm By George Orwell – A Novella Of Didactic Language And Political Ideology

Animal Farm, a masterpiece novella by George Orwell was written in 1945. It falls under the novella category as it is shorter and contains a less complex plot unlike a novel. The core issue of Animal Farm is about how Tsarist Russia evolved into Communist Russia after the Russian Revolution in 1917. Orwell used Animal Farm as a backdrop to represent Russia and the animals that inhabited the farm as a who’s who in the Russian Revolution. Animal Farm is an allegory—a narrative that uses literary devices to reveal hidden meanings and messages.

The Oxford Dictionary defines allegory as a story, poem or picture that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, usually moral or political. Not only that, Animal Farm is also a satire. The same Oxford Dictionary defines a satire as the use of humour, irony, exaggeration or ridicule to mock, expose and criticize the follies or vices of people, especially in the context of contemporary politics and other social issues. Animal Farm fits into both of these categories nicely.

At the time the book was published, it was not so popular, it did not get a wide reading, because Russia was an ally of the West in their fight against German aggression under Hitler in World War II. In a clear indication of the disparagement of Russia and its communist leaders, the Western world saw it as an act of ill will if they popularized the book in the group.

The author himself was not anti-communist. In fact, George Orwell is said to be a socialist who espoused the belief that industries should be under the control of the working class (workers) for the benefit of all, not just for the benefit of the elites who controlled these industries. However, he witnessed the corrupt revolution of the communists in Russia, eventually leading to a change in perception.

Orwell was perplexed at how the communist had deviated from their original noble goals to seek a classless society. Orwell’s conviction was that he owed the world a warning about how destructive unchecked authority was.

He was persistent in showing the other side of communism when it was carried too far without checks and balances and how the leaders of this cause succumbed to worldly pleasures, the same class-related pleasures they despised with other ideologies; hence the world witnessed the birth of Animal Farm. Orwell had used allegory to the best effect, to criticize the hypocrisy of communism, especially its overzealous leaders, their actions and their thirst for merciless murder and mass murder to maintain their status quo.

The use of pigs, of all animals, was the highlight of this novella. In a layman’s mind, pigs are lazy, unproductive animals and happily end up as meat to most taste buds. However, Orwell was way ahead of his time. He used pigs as protagonists and antagonists in Animal Farm for the same reasons that modern science had so shockingly discovered about these creatures. Scientists want people to think of pigs as more than just meat. Among other talents, pigs are known to have excellent long-term memories and are adept at completing mazes and recognizing symbols, just like our close cousins ​​the chimpanzees. They also have empathy and can learn from each other in groups.

In addition, Orwell had used pigs as an irony, rejecting all the myths surrounding these flesh creatures as lazy but wise, gluttonous but deceitful, immobile but strategist who is alive in thought, plotting and compiling a plan discreetly. Pigs are carnivorous animals, known for their slop. Orwell was quick to equate some world leaders, especially from states of communist ideology, with pigs, perhaps because of the state of hypocrisy in which they lived their lives; floating on the wealth produced by the proletariat, who for the greater part of their miserable lives remained poor and desolate, whereas the leaders were fat, ugly, and precariously healthy.

The old major at the animal farm was a pig, portrayed as old and wise, experienced and respected. Elder Major had a dream where ‘all animals are equal’. This was transmitted to the animals, who rejoiced at the prospect of being freed from the clutches of the elites – humans. Orwell used Old Major to represent Karl Marx, the founder of Communism, and the Communist Manifesto, which is based on Marxism. The words spoken by Old Major represent Marx’s words on the evils of feudalism and capitalism.

The saying also emphasized the idealistic world of communism. Thus, the Russian Revolution of 1917 was inspired by those who strongly believed in the doctrines of communism. In Marxist methodology, he first used economic and sociopolitical research to analyze and critique the development of capitalism and the role of class struggle in systemic economic change.

According to Marxist doctrines, class conflict within capitalism arises due to the escalation of contradictions between highly productive mechanized and socialized production carried out by the proletariat (workers) and private property and the appropriation of surplus product in the form of surplus value (profit) by a small one. minority of private owners called the bourgeoisie. In Animal Farm, the bourgeoisie was represented by Mr. and Mrs. Jones, the people who owned the animals, who often mistreated them. Mr. and Mrs. Jones can also be equated in direct reference to the last Czar of Russia – Nicholas II and his wife Alexandria, who were disliked by the Russians at the time for Russia’s unnecessary involvement in the First World War. Apparently, the animals got tired of patience, began to rebel, kicking people out of the farm and took control of their fate.

Besides the old major, another pig character was Snowball. Snowball rose as one of the leaders at Animal Farm. Snowball was described as a lively and intelligent character. He was given the task of spreading the achieved glory of Animal Farm throughout the neighborhood. Snowball represents Leon Trotsky – Lenin’s second-in-command in the Russian Revolution and leader of the “Red Army” in the subsequent Russian Civil War.

Trotsky also wanted to spread the word about communism to other nations. However, fate had a different fate when Snowball and Trotsky were exterminated by ruthless and corrupt individuals who wanted more than anything else for power.

Napoleon was another pig character who rose as a leader in the novels. Instead of influencing other animals and working with consensus, he secretly raised nine cubs into man-eating wild animals. These nine cubs were his personal army of bodyguards, which he used and manipulated to achieve his goals, however treacherous and brutal they might be. Napoleon represents Joseph Stalin – General Secretary of the Russian Communist Party from 1922 until his death in 1952.

The nine cubs were an analogy to the KGB – the communist party’s secret police, known for its ruthlessness. The KGB followed all of Stalin’s orders religiously without fear or favor.

The false confessions of infidelity at Animal Farm and subsequent executions were modeled on Stalin’s great purges of the 1930s, where anyone seen as a counter-revolutionary was mercilessly killed.

Squealer, another character in Animal Farm is a pig who always spreads persuasive messages supporting the leader’s goals and objectives. Squealer is the epitome of hypocrisy and propaganda. He reinvents the rules and the story in order to confuse the other animals on the farm. He could also represent Pravda – the Communist newspaper in Russia, which was the official propaganda mouthpiece of the party in the 1930s. With his magic like words and manipulative articulation, Squealer kept the public (animals) calm and under control with messages and his announcements are often misleading and distorted.

Animal Farm serves as a reminder of how people crave unlimited power to rule the lives of innocent people through divide and rule and manage by fear tactics to achieve their personal goals. Along these lines, some entered the history books as exemplary or despised. This novella is great to use as a reading resource for middle and high school students.

Students will not only learn the English language, but also the various literary devices – allegory, satire, irony, metaphor and personification that come with it. The novel contains a lot of humor from which the writer mocks the actions of the leader and students will also be able to apply their thinking outside the box to identify why some individuals had managed to get power, how some kept this power at all costs. how some misused the power entrusted to them for their personal gain and agenda, how some abused their power by using violence and threats, and how some were lost to popular power uprisings.

In addition, the historical events that this novel represents will provide an insight into communism and Russian history. Marxism then gained support in much of Europe, and under the control of the Bolshevik Party, a communist government took power during the Russian Revolution, leading to the creation of the Soviet Union, the world’s first Marxist state, in the early 20th century. to.

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