5 Why Plant Cells Are More Rigid Than Animal Cells Macro and Micro-Nutrient in Eggs

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Macro and Micro-Nutrient in Eggs

Eggs have been a staple in the human diet for thousands of years. From hunter-gatherers collecting eggs from the nests of wild birds, to the domestication of birds for more reliable access to the egg supply, to today’s genetically selected birds and modern production facilities, eggs have long been recognized as a source of high quality. protein and other important nutrients.

Over the years, eggs have become an essential ingredient in many kitchens, due to their many functional properties, such as water retention, emulsification and foaming. An egg is an independent and self-sufficient embryonic development chamber. At adequate temperature, the developing embryo utilizes a wide range of essential nutrients in the egg for its growth and development. The necessary proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and functional nutrients are all present in sufficient quantities for the transition from the fertilized cell to the newborn bird, and the nutrient requirements of a bird species are sufficiently similar to those of of man to make eggs an ideal. source of nutrients for us. (One essential human nutrient that eggs do not contain is ascorbic acid (vitamin C), because non-passerine birds have active gulonolactone oxidase and synthesize ascorbic acid as needed.) This article summarizes the various nutrient contributions that eggs make to human diet.

Macro and micro nutrients in eggs

The levels of many nutrients in an egg are affected by the age and breed or strain of the hen, as well as the season of the year and the composition of the feed offered to the hen. While most nutrient changes are relatively small, the fatty acid composition of egg lipids can be significantly altered by changes in the hen’s diet. The exact amounts of many vitamins and minerals in an egg are determined, in part, by the nutrients provided in the hen’s diet. Chicken eggs contain 75.8% water, 12.6% protein, 9.9% lipids and 1.7% vitamins, minerals and a small amount of carbohydrates. Eggs are classified as protein foods and egg protein is one of the highest quality proteins available. Almost all the lipids found in eggs are contained in the yolk, along with most of the vitamins and minerals. Of the small amount of carbohydrates (less than 1% by weight), half is in the form of glycoprotein and the rest in the form of free glucose.

Egg protein

Egg proteins, which are distributed in the yolk and white (albumen), are complete nutritional proteins that contain all the essential amino acids (EAAs). Egg protein has a chemical score (the level of EAA in a protein food divided by the level found in an ‘ideal’ protein food) of 100, a biological value (a measure of how efficiently dietary protein is converted into body tissue) of 94, and the highest protein efficiency ratio (ratio of weight gain to ingested protein in young rats) of any dietary protein. The main proteins found in egg yolk include low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which makes up 65%, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), phosvitin and livetin. These proteins exist in a homogeneously emulsified liquid. Egg white consists of about 40 different types of proteins. Ovalbumin is the main protein (54%) along with ovotransferrin (12%) and ovomucoid (11%). Other proteins of interest include flavoprotein, which binds riboflavin, avidin, which can bind and inactivate biotin, and lysozyme, which has lytic action against bacteria.

Egg lipids

A large egg yolk contains 4.5 g of lipids, consisting of triacylglycerides (65%), phospholipids (31%) and cholesterol (4%). Of the total phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) is the largest fraction and constitutes 26%. Phosphatidylethanolamine contributes 4%. The fatty acid composition of egg lipids depends on the fatty acid profile of the diet. The reported fatty acid profile of commercial eggs indicates that one large egg contains 1.55 g of saturated fatty acids, 1.91 g of monounsaturated fat, and 0.68 g of polyunsaturated fatty acids. (Total fatty acids (4.14 g) do not equal total lipids (4.5 g) because of the glycerol portion of triacylglycerides and phospholipids and the phosphorylated portions of phospholipids). Eggs have been reported to contain less than 0.05 g of trans fatty acids. Egg yolks also contain cholesterol (211 mg per large egg) and the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin.

Egg vitamins

Eggs contain all the essential vitamins except vitamin C, because the developing bird does not have a dietary requirement for this vitamin. The yolk contains most of the water-soluble vitamins and 100% of the fat-soluble vitamins. Riboflavin and niacin are concentrated in albumin. Riboflavin in egg albumin is bound to flavoprotein in a 1:1 molar ratio. Eggs are one of the few natural sources of vitamins D and B12. Egg vitamin E levels can be increased up to tenfold through dietary changes. While no single vitamin is found in very high amounts compared to its DRI value, it is the wide spectrum of vitamins present that makes eggs nutritionally rich.

Egg minerals

Eggs contain small amounts of all the minerals essential for life. Of particular importance is the iron found in egg yolks. Research that assessed plasma iron and transferrin saturation in children 6–12 months of age showed that infants who ate egg yolk had better iron status than infants who did not. The study showed that egg yolks can be a source of iron in a breast milk feeding diet for breastfed and formula fed infants without increasing blood antibodies to egg yolk proteins. Dietary iron absorption from a specific food is determined by iron status, heme and nonheme iron content, and the amount of various dietary factors affecting iron absorption present in the entire meal. There is limited information about the net effect of these factors on egg iron bioavailability. In addition to iron, eggs contain calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, copper and manganese. Egg yolks also contain iodine (25 mg per large egg), and this can be doubled to tripled by including an iodine source in the diet. The selenium content of eggs can also be increased up to ninefold by dietary manipulation.

Egg choline

Choline was established as an essential nutrient in 1999 with recommended daily intakes (RDIs) of 550 mg for men and 450 mg for women. The RDI for choline increases during pregnancy and lactation due to the high rate of transfer of choline from mother to fetus and into breast milk. Animal studies show that choline plays an essential role in brain development, especially in the development of the memory centers of the fetus and newborn. Egg yolk lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) is an excellent source of dietary choline, providing 125 mg of choline per large egg.

Egg carotenes

Egg yolk contains two xanthophylls (carotenes containing an alcohol group) that have important health benefits – lutein and zeaxanthin. It is estimated that one large egg contains 0.33 mg of lutein and zeaxanthin; however, the content of these xanthophylls depends entirely on the type of feed offered to the chickens. Egg yolk lutein levels can be increased up to tenfold through food modification with marigold extract or purified lutein.

An indicator of the content of luteinzeaxanthin is the color of the yolk; the darker yellow-orange the yellow, the higher the xanthophyll content. Studies have shown that egg yolk xanthophyll has a higher bioavailability than those from plant sources, possibly because the lipid matrix of the egg yolk facilitates greater absorption. This increased bioavailability results in significantly increased plasma levels of lutein and zeaxanthin, as well as increased macular pigment density with egg feeding.

Egg cholesterol

Eggs are one of the richest sources of dietary cholesterol, providing 215 mg per large egg. In the 1960s and 1970s, the simplistic view that dietary cholesterol equaled blood cholesterol resulted in the belief that eggs were a major contributor to hypercholesterolemia and the associated risk of cardiovascular disease. While there is some controversy regarding the role of dietary cholesterol in determining blood cholesterol levels, most studies have shown that saturated fat, not dietary cholesterol, is the primary dietary determinant of plasma cholesterol levels (and eggs contain 1.5 g of fat saturated). and that neither dietary cholesterol nor egg consumption are significantly associated with the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Across cultures, those countries with the highest egg consumption actually have the lowest cardiovascular disease mortality rates, and within-population studies have not shown a correlation between egg intake and plasma cholesterol levels or the incidence of heart disease. . A 1999 study of over 117,000 men and women followed for 8-14 years showed that the risk of coronary heart disease was the same whether the study subjects consumed less than one egg per week or more than one egg per day . Clinical studies show that dietary cholesterol has little effect on plasma cholesterol levels. Adding one egg per day to the diet would, on average, increase total cholesterol levels in blood plasma by approximately 5 mg dl_1 (0.13 mmol/L). However, it is important to note that the increase occurs in both the atherogenic fraction of LDL cholesterol (4 mg dl_1 (0.10 mmol/L)) and the antiatherogenic fraction of HDL cholesterol (1 mg dl_1 (0.03 mmol/L)), resulting in virtually in no change in the LDL:HDL ratio, a major determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. The response of plasma lipoprotein cholesterol to egg feeding, particularly any change in the LDL:HDL ratio, varies by individual and baseline plasma lipoprotein cholesterol profile. Adding one egg per day to the diets of three hypothetical patients with different plasma lipid profiles results in very different effects on the LDL:HDL ratio. For the low-risk individual there is a greater effect than for the high-risk person, however in all cases the effect is quantitatively small and would have little impact on the heart disease risk profile.

Overall, results from clinical studies show that eating eggs has little or no effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease. This is consistent with the results of a number of epidemiological studies. A common consumer misperception is that eggs from certain breeds of birds have little or no cholesterol. For example, eggs from Araucana chickens, a South American breed that lays a blue-green egg, have been promoted as low-cholesterol eggs, when, in fact, the cholesterol content of these eggs is 25% higher than of commercial eggs. The amount of cholesterol in an egg is determined by the developmental needs of the embryo and has proven very difficult to change substantially without the use of hypocholesterolemic drugs. Unnecessary concerns about the cholesterol content of eggs resulted in a steady decline in egg consumption during the 1970s, 1980s, and early 1990s, limiting this important and affordable source of high-quality protein and nutrients. other nutrients could have negative effects on well-being. of many nutritionally ‘at risk’ populations. Per capita egg consumption has increased over the past decade in North America, Central America, and Asia, remained relatively stable in South America and Africa, and declined in Europe and Oceania. Overall, world egg consumption per capita has increased slowly over the past decade, partly due to changing attitudes about the health concerns of dietary cholesterol.

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