4 Types Of Glands In Mammals Diffrent From Other Animals Amazing Information About Tigers – The Largest Living Cat

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Amazing Information About Tigers – The Largest Living Cat

Few animals evoke such strong feelings of fear and awe as the tiger. For centuries its behavior has inspired legends and the occasional human inclusion in its diet has intensified the mystique.

Tigers are the largest living felids. Siberian tigers are the largest and most massively built subspecies: the record was a male weighing 384 kg (845 lb).

Like that of other big cats, the tiger’s physique reflects adaptations for catching and killing large game. Their hind limbs are longer than their forelimbs as an adaptation for jumping; Their forelimbs and shoulders are very muscular—much more so than their hindlimbs—and their front paws are equipped with long, sharp, retractable claws, enabling them to grasp and hold prey once contact is made. . The skull is shortened, thereby increasing the cutting leverage of the powerful jaws. A lethal bite is quickly delivered by the long, somewhat flattened canines.

Unlike the cheetah and the lion, the tiger is not found in open habitats. Its niche is essentially that of a large, solitary stalk and ambush hunter, exploiting medium- and large-sized prey inhabiting moderately dense cover.

Tigers in captivity

The basic social unit in the tiger is the mother and young. However, tigers have been successfully kept in pairs or groups in zoos and have been seen in zoos (normally a female and cub, but sometimes a male and female) when killing prey in the wild, indicating a high degree of social tolerance . The demands of the habitat in which the tiger lives have not favored the development of a complex society and instead we see a distributed social system. This arrangement is well suited to the task of finding and securing food in a substantially closed habitat where dispersed prey is solitary or in small groups. Under these circumstances, a predator gains little by hunting cooperatively, but can operate more efficiently by hunting alone.

In a long-term study of tigers in the Royal Chitwan National Park, southern Nepal, it was found, using radio-tracking techniques, that both males and females occupy home ranges that do not overlap with those of others of their sex; female home ranges were approximately 20 km2 (8 sq mi) while males were much larger, measuring 60 – 100 km2 (23 – 40 sq mi). The range of each resident male included that of several females. Transient animals occasionally moved through resident ranges, but never stayed there for long. By comparison, in the Soviet Far East, where prey is dispersed and makes large seasonal movements, tiger densities are low, less than one adult per 100 square km (40 sq mi).

Tigers home range

Tigers use a variety of methods to maintain exclusive rights to their home range. Urine, mixed with secretions from the anal glands, is splashed on trees, bushes and rocks along the paths, and fences and waste are left in conspicuous places throughout the area. Scratching trees can also serve as a signpost. These chemical and visual signals convey a lot of information to neighboring animals, which probably recognize each other by smell. Males can learn the reproductive state of females and intruding animals are informed of the resident’s presence, thus reducing the possibility of direct physical conflict and injury, which the solitary tiger cannot afford as it depends on its own physical health to obtain food. . The importance of marking was evident in the Nepal study, when tigers that failed to visit part of their home range to deposit these “occupied” signals (either due to death or enclosure with cubs) lost the area in three to four weeks to the neighbors. animals. This shows that boundaries are constantly probed and controlled and that tigers occupying adjacent ranges are very aware of each other’s presence.

Exclusive long-term use of a home range gives the resident considerable advantages. For a female, familiarity with an area is important, as she must kill prey with some regularity to raise young. When the cubs are small and cannot follow them, she must get food from a small area, as she must return to suckle them at regular intervals. Later, when her young are larger and growing rapidly, she must be able to find and kill enough prey to feed herself and the young.

Territorial advantages for males appear to be different; they carry a range three or four times that of the female, so food is not likely to be the critical factor. What matters is access to females and paternity of pups. Males are not directly involved in raising the young. Although there is not as much evidence as for lions, some cases of male tigers killing cubs have been reported. These are usually associated with the purchase of one man’s house by another. By killing the previous male’s offspring, the incoming male ensures that females in his newly acquired range come into heat and give birth to his offspring.

Tigers living in core habitat areas raise more young than they can find openings, so a large number of animals, usually young adults, live on the outskirts. There is no clear picture of social organization in these marginal areas, but the range is certainly greater and possibly overlapping, and there is little successful reproduction.

This peripheral segment of the population is important, as it promotes genetic mixing in the breeding population and ensures that there are enough individuals to fill any vacancies that may arise. Unfortunately, it is usually these tigers that come into conflict with humans, as the habitat they occupy is more often than not heavily exploited by man and his livestock.

Tiger Breeding

Sexual maturity is reached at the age of 3-4 years. Breeding activity has been recorded monthly for tigers from tropical regions, while in the north breeding is limited to the winter months. A female is only viable for a few days and mating can occur up to 100 times over a period of two days. Three to four cubs, weighing about 1 kg (2.2 lb) each, are born blind and helpless. The female raises them alone, returning to the “den” site to feed them until they are old enough to start following her, around eight weeks of age. Cubs remain completely dependent on their mother for food until about 18 months of age and may continue to use their mother’s range until 2 – 2.5 years of age, when they disperse to seek their own home range.

All surviving subspecies are endangered. Its wide geographical distribution, which includes such a variety of habitat types, creates the illusion that the tiger is an adaptable species. In fact, it is a highly specialized large predator with very specific ecological requirements and is much less adaptable than the leopard. Once found throughout much of Asia, the tiger’s current distribution and reduced numbers indicate that the requirements for large prey and sufficient cover are becoming more difficult to meet as suitable areas for the large wild ungulates , and thus tigers, are being appropriated for agricultural purposes. Since most tiger reserves are relatively small, less than 1,000 square km (290 sq mi), and isolated, the effective population size is small and there is little or no interbreeding between populations.

Tigers rarely become man-eaters; indeed they usually avoid human contact. Some man-eaters may be old or disabled, but there are also many cases of healthy young adult tigers who acquire the habit. This behavior may begin with an accident—an unexpected close encounter that ends with the person being killed. Sometimes a single episode can be all it takes for a tiger to learn to kill a human. Whether or not a tiger takes the next step and becomes a deliberate man-eater may depend on opportunity. There is also some suggestion that “hateful” encounters with people over the first human killing discourage many further incidents. Availability of other prey may also be a factor.

Hunting technique

Tigers hunt alone, actively searching for prey more often than waiting in ambush. An individual will typically travel 10 – 20 km (6 – 12 miles) during a night’s hunt. Tigers do not catch their prey easily – probably one in 10 or 20 attempts is successful.

Having found the quarry, a dormant tiger then uses sight. The tiger makes maximum use of cover to hide to get close to prey (1). It must come within 20 km (66 ft) or less if the final rush is to be successful. The approach is extremely cautious, with the tiger placing each foot carefully on the ground and pausing occasionally to assess the situation. It assumes a half-bending or bowing, with the head up, during the stem. Taking advantage of the distance and position of the prey, the tiger gathers up and suddenly rushes its victim (2), covering the intermediate distance in several bounds. When contact is made, the momentum of the charge can knock the animal off its feet, or if the prey is in flight, a swipe with a front shoulder can serve to throw it off balance. A tiger’s attack is usually from the side or rear; it does not launch itself into the air or fall upon its prey from afar. While grasping prey around the shoulder, back or neck (3) with its claws, the tiger’s hind legs usually do not leave the ground. At this point, the prey is withdrawn from the legs, if it did not happen earlier during the attack. A bite to the throat or neck may be delivered after contact or as the tiger brings the victim to the ground (4).

When the prey weighs more than half the weight of the tiger, the throat bite is usually used and death is most likely caused by suffocation. The grip can be maintained for several minutes after death. The kills are carried or dragged into the dense cover and the tigers usually start feeding on the mushrooms. It is not unusual for a tiger to consume 20 – 35 kg (44 – 77 lb) of meat in one night, but the average eaten over several days is less, about 15 – 18 kg/day (33 – 40 lb).

Tigers stay close to their death and continue to feed at leisure until only skin and bones remain – the average time in Chitwan National Park was three days for each kill. Small prey, such as Barking deer, are eaten in one meal, with large sambar, deer and bison providing food for several days, unless several tigers (usually females and young) feed on the carcass.

A tigress with cubs must kill more often to provide food – it is calculated once every 5-6 days, or 60-70 animals per year, for a female with two cubs. This compares to one kill every 8 days or 40 – 50 kills per year for a female in the same area with no dependent young.

A tiger will eat anything it can catch, but larger ungulates (prime adults, as well as young or old animals) in the 50 – 200 kg (110 – 440 lb) range make up the bulk of the diet. theirs. Typical prey are thus sambar, chital, swamp deer, red deer, Rusa deer and wild boar. Tigers occasionally take very large prey such as rhinoceros and elephant calves, water buffalo, moose, wapiti and gaur. In many areas, agricultural funds are also easily obtained, especially when wildlife is depleted.

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