2. What Are Three Differences Between Plant And Animal Cells Understanding the Health Benefits of Moderate Red Wine Consumption

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Understanding the Health Benefits of Moderate Red Wine Consumption

Previous epidemiological studies suggested that alcohol – and therefore wine, beer and spirits – was the ingredient responsible for the claimed health benefits, although its negative effects such as alcoholism and social influences, cognitive developmental deficits, fetal alcohol syndrome ( FAS) and the increased risk of breast cancer in women is indisputable.

In moderate consumption, alcohol has been shown to increase the amount of tPA, or tissue plasminogen activator, a substance that catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, the main enzyme responsible for breaking down clots. And in the issue of May 31, 2009, Spectator of wine cites a Stanford University study that claims aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) enzymes process alcohol and “eliminate toxic byproducts created by the breakdown of fat in cells during a heart attack. Eliminating the byproducts prevents additional damage to heart cells “.

Although alcohol plays a beneficial role, more recent studies have shown that red wine offers further protection against disease and illness and, therefore, there are other important healthy components in red wine that are not found in white wine. , beer or spirits. These healthy compounds belong to a class of compounds known as polyphenols of which there are two types in red wine: non-flavonoids and flavonoids. The word “flavonoid” is derived from Latin flavonesmeaning “yellow” – and not “smell” – which tends to confuse people.

Non-flavonoids include stilbene polyphenols (also known as stilbenoids) such as resveratrol from grape pulp and hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives such as gallotannins and ellagitannins found in oak-aged wines. Gallotannins and ellagitannins are better known as hydrolyzable tannins and are copolymers of gallic and ellagic acids and glucose, respectively.

Until recently, resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene) was believed to be the main compound responsible for the health attributes in red wine. However, modern quantification methods show that the amount of resveratrol in wine is too low, especially in wines processed with fining agents such as PVPP, to be of any significant health consequence on its own. But a diet rich in resveratrol from fruits, vegetables, nuts and wine has been linked, along with a healthy lifestyle, to longevity in humans, according to Dr. Joseph Maroon, a world-renowned neurosurgeon and author of The longevity factor. He has extensively studied the research of Dr. David Sinclair on this topic. Sinclair is Director of the Paul F. Glenn Laboratories for Biological Mechanisms of Aging at Harvard Medical School and a distinguished researcher in the biology of longevity. His team recently demonstrated in laboratory experiments that resveratrol has life-extending activity not only in normal mice but also in obese mice by activating “survival” genes. Resveratrol has also been demonstrated to increase the production of nitric oxide (NO) by the endothelium (the thin layer of cells that line the inner surface of blood vessels). Endothelial nitric oxide is a vasodilator which means it widens the arteries in our body to protect organs from ischemic damage.

It is interesting to note that resveratrol molecules are produced under stress in plants as a means of fighting fungal infections. Also, resveratrol is also classified as a phytoalexin (antibiotics produced by plants that are under attack) and, therefore, resveratrol concentrations are higher in grapes grown in cold, wet climates. This is the basis of it The Xenohormesis Hypothesis which states that “animals have evolved to sense stress signaling molecules in other species in order to receive advance warning of a deteriorating environment.” This was postulated by Sinclair and colleague Konrad Howitz and helps explain the French paradox. Maroon also states that V. rotundifolia Muscadine grapes are extremely useful because they have an extra chromosome (compared to V. vinifera cultivars) that produces the phytochemical ellagic acid, and is then transformed into ellagitannins which are believed to provide anti-cancer and other health benefits.

Flavonoids are a group of compounds found mainly in the skins, stems and seeds of grapes. Flavanols (also known as flavan-3-ols) such as catechin and epicatechin are flavonoids abundant in grape seeds (as well as other “health foods” such as green tea and dark chocolate) and are responsible for giving tannic wines the familiar astringent sensation. There are also anthocyanins such as delphinidin and malvidin, which are responsible for the red color found in grape skins and which is then imparted to red wine during maceration and fermentation. And there are flavonols such as quercetin which were found to be strong biological antioxidants that provide a range of health benefits that are maximized in the presence of resveratrol which quercetin absorbs more easily.

Recent research, particularly that of Roger Corder, a professor of experimental therapeutics at the William Harvey Research Institute in London, England and author of The red wine dietnow shows that procyanidins are the active ingredients.

Procyanidins, a subclass of flavanols are also known as proanthocyanidins or how procanidin oligomeric proanthocyanidin (OPC) or how condensed TANNINS because they are formed by the condensation of flavanols. They are found in high concentrations in grape seeds (which explains the recent grape seed oil craze) and are made up of long chains of repeating units of other flavanols such as catechin and epicatechin. Young red wines are richer in procyanidins, and as the wine ages, the procyanidin molecules polymerize into longer, heavier, and less soluble chains, which then precipitate at the bottom of barrels, tanks, or bottles. It logically follows, as Corder asserts, that the health benefits of red wine are maximized when drunk young. Additionally, different grapes contain different amounts of procyanidin, and Corder’s research singles out Tannat as the red richest in procyanidin. vinifera variety.

The Tannat grape is used to produce the wonderful wines of Madiran, an important appellation in the foothills of the Pyrenees in southwestern France and Uruguay in southeastern South America. Tannat-based wines are extremely coloured, concentrated and highly tannic as their name would suggest when vinified using traditional winemaking techniques that emphasize phenolic extraction and little or no fining and filtration. Red wines made using carbonic maceration or produced as rosés or using a short maceration period will only contain low levels of procyanidin. As we saw earlier, polyphenols are not as soluble in grape juice and become more soluble in wine as the alcohol content increases during fermentation.

The concentration of procyanidin in grapes also depends on the age of the vine as well as on viticultural practices. Stressing the vines, for example by limiting water intake and harvesting at low yields, can be helpful in this regard, and the older the vines the better because of the added stress of age, which tends to favor the concentration of phenol. A long and slow growing season is always preferred, however, we cannot control Mother Nature.

So how do procyanidins work in our bodies to reduce the risks of atherosclerosis, cancer, dementia, diabetes and other diseases and ailments? There are various biological mechanisms, two of which we examine here: antioxidant by reducing oxidative stress and hypolipemic (as the name suggests—hypolipemic refers to a substance or compound that lowers the concentration of fats in the blood).

Procyanidins are powerful biological antioxidants (so is resveratrol) just like vitamins C and E. They are capable of fighting free radicals responsible for aging and disease. Free radicals are atoms, molecules or ions with unpaired electrons that make them highly reactive and can attack and damage key components in living cells, proteins within cells as well as DNA and can disrupt their proper functioning to initiate a disease such as CHD or malignancy. cancer. In her brochure ResveratrolMatilde Parente, MD aptly compared the oxidative damage caused by free radicals to rust.

Procyanidins also inhibit LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, better known as bad cholesteroland increasing the level of HDL cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein) or good cholesterol. LDL cholesterol is responsible for coronary thrombosis, that is, the formation of platelets in blood coagulation that leads to the oxidation of LDL cholesterol and then to atherosclerosis – the most common form of arteriosclerosis in which fatty deposits accumulate on the arterial walls, restricting blood flow. and increasing the risk of myocardial infarction (heart attack). Saturated fats from red or processed meat and trans fats are the main culprits of LDL cholesterol. Triglycerides, the main component of vegetable oil and animal fats, are also implicated in atherosclerosis. HDL cholesterol contains more protein and less fat and actually removes LDL cholesterol from the blood and artery lining and transports it to the liver for breakdown and excretion.

On the lighter side of things, NYDailyNews.com reports that women who drink two glasses of wine a day experience greater sexual satisfaction than those who don’t or who drink one glass a day, according to researchers from the University of Florence, Italy. We can safely extrapolate these results to men, without the need for any scientific study. But gentlemen (and postmenopausal ladies), be warned—alcohol makes snoring worse, which your partner may find unromantic and be less inclined to invite you back for another sexual escapade. So use wine (and other alcohols especially distilled spirits) and stick to moderate consumption.

Need any more good news to make wine a part of your daily diet?

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