2 Structures Found In Plant Cells And Not Animal Cells Three Principal Carbohydrates and the Foods in Which they are Present

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Three Principal Carbohydrates and the Foods in Which they are Present

Carbohydrates are organic molecules (they contain carbon and come from living sources) and are our main source of energy. The three main carbohydrates (according to their structure) are: sugars, starches and fibres.

1. SUGARS

Monosaccharides:

· GLUCOSE found in fruit or can be hydrolyzed from starch, cane sugar, milk sugar, malt sugar

· Fructose found in most fruits and fruit juices, honey, certain vegetables

· Galactose it is formed in the process of metabolism of milk sugar lactose

Disaccharides:

  • Lactosealso known as “milk sugar” and the only sugar of animal origin, it comes from mother’s milk
  • sucrose or “white sugar” comes from sugar cane, sugar beets, maple syrup, molasses, sorghum and pineapple
  • Maltose or “malt sugar” is produced in the process of breaking down the starch in some cereal grains and is also present in beer, malted foods, some breakfast cereals and crackers.

2. STARCHES are also known as “complex carbohydrates” or “polysaccharides”. They are found in potatoes, root vegetables, and grains such as wheat, rice, and corn.

  • Amylopectin – the most common starch found in foods
  • Amylose – with long chains of glucose molecules
  • Glycogen – starch of animal origin (from muscles and liver)
  • dextrins – partially dissolved starch, formed during the breakdown of starch

3. FIBER is mainly the insoluble cellulose from the skins of fruits and vegetables and the hulls of cereals. Provides little energy or caloric value, but aids bowel function and elimination. Other hi-fibers are: guar gum, conger root flour, chitosan (derived from oyster shells).

  • Cellulose – the most common fiber from staple foods
  • Hemicelluloses – from plant cell walls (eg psyllium seed husk, pectin)
  • Agar and alginate – from seaweed
  • Carrageen – from the Irish moss plant

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