2 Key Variables Used To Classify Viruses That Affect Animals Lung Cancer – Classification, Stages, Symptoms, Causes, Effects, Prevention, Detection and Treatment

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Lung Cancer – Classification, Stages, Symptoms, Causes, Effects, Prevention, Detection and Treatment

Lung cancer is caused by the rapid uncontrolled growth of cells in the tissue. This type of cancer is the most common and results in more than one million deaths each year. This form of cancer is indicated by weight loss or coughing up blood or regular breathing. It can be seen on the radiographic chart of the chest also called CT Scan. The treatment a person receives depends on the stage they are at. Cancer treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

Distribution

Lung cancers are classified after examination under a microscope. Classification is necessary as different types of cancer are treated differently. A large proportion of lung cancers are carcinomas – malignant diseases that grow from epithelial cells. Lung carcinomas are divided into two types: non-small and small lung carcinomas. Non-small cell lung carcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma account for 80.4% and 16.8% of lung cancer incidence, respectively.

1. NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CARCINOMA

Non-small cell lung carcinomas are grouped together as their prognosis and management are somewhat similar. They are further classified into three types: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma. Squamous cell lung cancer originates near a central bronchus. They account for 25% of lung cancers. Adenocarcinoma begins in the peripheral tissues of the lung. Cases of adenocarcinoma are a consequence of smoking. They account for 40% of non-small cell lung cancers.

2. SMALL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE LUNGS

This type of lung cancer is rare. Sometimes called “oat cell” carcinoma. In most cases they originate from the larger airways (primary and secondary bronchi) and from there they grow rapidly. This type of lung cancer is mainly linked to smoking.

SECONDARY CANCER

These cancers are classified based on the place of origin like breast cancer, but it has spread to the lungs. Most lung cancers in children are secondary.

STAGE OF LUNG CANCER

Staging of lung cancer is used to estimate the extent to which the cancer has spread from the site of origin. It is an important factor that determines the possible treatment of lung cancer. The scale starts from 1A to 4, 1A being the best prognosis and 4 being the worst.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

The following are the symptoms of lung cancer: 1. The voice becomes hoarse. 2. Sudden weight loss. 3. Feeling of pain in the chest or abdomen. 4. Difficulty in swallowing. 5. Loss of appetite. 6. Stuck out of breath. Many of the symptoms mentioned above are non-specific. By the time they notice symptoms or signs, the cancer has already spread from its place of origin. Very few people with this cancer have symptoms at the time of diagnosis, these cancers are seen on a routine chest radiograph.

CAUSES

The three main causes of cancer are: carcinogens (found in tobacco), viral infection and ionizing radiation. If exposed, it causes changes to the DNA in the tissue that lines the bronchi of the lungs. As more tissue is damaged, cancer develops.

1. TOBACCO

Smoking is the main cause of cancer. In a cigarette, there are 60 different types of known carcinogens such as radioisotopes and nitrosamines. Smoking is believed to cause 80% of these cases. The risk is generally lower in non-smokers. The length of time a person smokes proportionally increases the chances of this cancer. There have been cases that if a person quits smoking, the damaged cells are gradually repaired. In non-smokers, passive smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer. Passive smoking is that which is inhaled by another person who smokes.

2. RADON GAS

Gas produced by the decay of radium. This gas is colorless and odorless. Exposure to radiation ionizes genetic material, causing mutations that sometimes turn into cancer. Exposure to radon gas is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking.

3. ASBESTOS

Asbestos is responsible for causing a number of cancers, one of which is lung cancer. In the UK, asbestos accounts for 2 to 3% of all cases of this cancer.

4. VIRUS

Viruses are responsible for causing lung cancer in animals. And research has shown a similar potential in humans.

5. PARTICULAR ISSUES

Particulate matter has a direct link to lung cancer cases. The size and amount of particles in the air determines the risk of lung cancer. If the particle concentration increases beyond 1%, then the chances of getting this increase by 14%.

PATHOGENESIS

Like other forms of cancer, lung cancer is initiated by the activation of oncogenes or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Ocnogenes are those genes that make people more vulnerable to cancer. Oncogens are produced from proto-oncogens when the latter is exposed to specific carcinogens. In the proto-oncogene k-ras, mutations occur which are responsible for 10 to 30% of lung adenocarcinomas. Tumor invasion, angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell profiling are regulated by the epidermal growth factor receptor. EGFR mutations and amplification are common in non-small cell lung cancer. The basis for treatment with EGFR inhibitors is also provided by EGFR mutation and amplification. Chromosomal damage can lead to loss of heterozygosity that can result in inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Damage to four of these chromosomes: 3p, 5q, 13q, and 17p are common in small cell lung carcinoma. P53, which is a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 17p, is affected in most cases. c-MET, NKX2-1, LKB1, PIK3A and BRAF are also mutated or amplified. Various genetic polymorphisms are complementary to this cancer. Some of these include polymorphisms in genes encoding interleukin-1, cytochrome p450, apoptosis inducers such as caspase-8, and XRCC1, which is a DNA repair molecule. People who have these polymorphisms are more likely to develop lung cancer when exposed to carcinogens. Research has found that the MDM2 309G allele is a low-penetrance risk factor for developing this in Asians.

diagnostic

If a person has reported symptoms that may suggest lung-related cancer, then a chest radiograph is performed as a first step. The test reveals mediastinal enlargement, atelectasis, and pleural effusion. Even if there are no radiographic findings, but the suggestion of this is high because of things like a heavy smoker with blood-stained sputum, then a CT-Scan can provide the necessary data. If the findings are abnormal in salivary cells, then they multiply the risk of this type of cancer. Early detection can be done by cytological examination of saliva along with other screening examinations. The differential diagnosis for those patients who show abnormalities on chest cardiography considers lung-related cancer along with non-malignant disease. These take into account infectious causes such as tuberculosis or pneumonia. The aforementioned diseases can lead to lung nodules.

prevention

Prevention, as always, is better than cure. Steps in this direction have been taken by many countries by identifying carcinogens and banning them, but smoking, which is the main cause of lung cancer, is still common. Smoking cessation is the primary goal in lung cancer prevention. Steps to reduce passive smoking have also been taken by banning smoking in public places and workplaces. New Zealand has restricted smoking in open places. A similar step has been taken by Chandigarh, India. Bhutan has criminalized smoking since 2005.

SCREENING

Screening is used to detect the disease by doing medical tests when the patient does not show any symptoms. Chest X-ray or computed tomography are the tests used to screen for lung cancer. But the results showed that screening tests for lung cancer rarely showed any benefit.

treatment

Lung cancer treatment can be done in the following ways, depending on the stage or grade of the cancer:

1. SURGERY

If doctors have found lung cancer, then CT scan and positron emission tomography are usually used to check whether the disease has set in and can be operated on or has moved to the point where surgery is not possible. Surgery can be performed only if spirometry reveals good respiratory reserve, but if it is weak, then surgery is not possible. Even surgery has an operative death rate of 4.4%, but this is due to the patient’s lung function and other factors.

2. CHEMOTHERAPY

Chemotherapy, along with radiation, is used to treat small cell lung carcinoma. Primary chemotherapy is also used in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.

3. RADIOTHERAPY

Radiotherapy, with chemotherapy, is given when the patient is not fit to undergo surgery. This type of high-intensity radiotherapy is called radical radiotherapy. GRATE (hyperfractionated continuous accelerated radiotherapy) is the refined version of this technique in which a high dose of radiotherapy is given over a short period of time. When the cancer affects a short section of the bronchus, then brachytherapy is given.

EPIDEMOLOGY

Lung cancer is the most commonly reported cancer. There are 1.35 million cases each year and 1.18 million deaths. Lung cancer develops in those who have a history of smoking for a long period of years i. and 50 years old and above. In addition to smoking, passive smoking is also a factor that causes lung cancer. Emissions from factories, automobiles, power plants also pose a threat to human health. Lung cancer has been found to have a reciprocal effect with sunlight and UVB exposure. This is due to the effect of vitamin D, produced in the skin during exposure to sunlight.

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