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Six Types of Human Values
Human beings need different things to live in this world. However, nothing in this world is available without cost. Everything has a price and one has to pay the right price to meet their needs. However, we value things based on our needs, and needs depend on the basis of our value system.
First, there are basic needs like food, water, air, shelter and clothing without which survival of the body itself is not possible. However, after these needs are met, one moves on to satisfy one’s higher needs such as social needs, safety needs, or self-actualization needs.
However, every person does not follow the same path as their path would depend on the inherent values of the person. These inherent values are acquired by man because of his nature and also from his upbringing. The effect of family, society, nation and individual makes each person unique as he develops a unique set of values. These values determine the person’s priority and way of life. Values make a person’s personality and determine the growth of the individual, family, society, nation and humanity.
1. Individualistic values
A person’s most natural value is individualistic which means valuing oneself above everything else in the world. This is also the most natural value that is inherent in every animal of the world. Animals live for themselves without worrying too much about other animals. The only exception would be the mother animal who takes care of her baby animal until the baby is old enough to support itself.
The modern world has moved more and more towards individualistic values where the interest of the individual is considered the most “right” and must be protected above all else. The individualistic value supports freedom as it believes that each person has the right to decide what is good for him.
Every child starts with individualistic values and he wants everything in the world for himself and wants everyone to serve him. When the child’s need is not met, he cries and does everything to satisfy the need.
2. Family values
The human species may be the most powerful species on earth, but it is also true that the human species is also the weakest species. A human child does not even learn to walk for a year. If the man’s child is allowed to survive on its own, it simply cannot survive. Family support is essential to the growth of every human child. It is for this reason that the human species over the years has invented the concept of the family that lives as a unit and supports a newborn child until it is strong enough to support itself.
The concept of family has created the family value where the family is considered as the basic unit of society instead of the individual. The family has the right and power to control the other family member. In a family system, family members divide their work in such a way that all members perform complementary functions rather than performing the same functions. For example, the father earns a living and protects the family by being the strongest member of the family. The mother takes care of the family by cooking, cleaning the house and raising children. Children in turn receive these benefits at no cost to their parents, but they have a family obligation to provide the same benefits to their children. Thus the family ensures the continuity of the value and tradition of the family.
In the family system, the interest of each family member is protected through an unwritten law as only love and trust guide the management of a family. Parents are not looking for any personal gain when they give something to their children. Even children recognize the contribution made by their parents in building their lives and they not only pass on the same benefits to their children but also take care of their parents when they grow up.
The whole value system of the family is held by tradition and faith.
However, when family values are strong, this results in a decrease in individual freedom and a decline in individual values. Everyone should think of family first and themselves second. This often kills man’s creativity as he is never free to think as an individual.
3. Professional values
A society consists not only of natural families, but also of origin which are artificially created to fulfill a specific demand of society. Government is one of the most important organizations that is created to establish order in society. The government is further divided into various departments like police, revenue, defense etc, which are needed to keep the country united and protect it from external aggression. There are many other organizations which are run by private individuals or bodies that produce goods and provide services to the people of the nation and the world.
Every person must join an origin to earn a living and contribute to society. These organizations are created to serve a specialized function of society and thus need a set of values to keep all members of the organization motivated and united.
Thus man develops a set of values because of his profession. The values of a police officer are different from the values of a judge or a politician. Each profession has its own set of values which often conflict with the values of another profession. However, these values are necessary to keep professionals together and deliver what is expected of them.
4. National values
The world today is divided into a number of countries and each country is sovereign and independent. However, in recent years countries have begun to behave like family members as independence is gradually being replaced by interdependence in globalized economies. If China is emerging as the manufacturing hub of the world, India has become the external and support hub of the world from where various services are being provided to the world. The Arab world is producing oil for the world and the US has taken the lead in creating knowledge and Information Technology for the world. Each country is gradually becoming a specialist in a specific task and getting the rest of the requirements fulfilled by other countries of the world.
Thus, just as individuals and families must compete and complement each other for their survival in a society, every nation must compete and complement the other countries of the world. To make the nation stronger, some kind of values should be cultivated in their citizen, which makes the country not composed of millions or billions of individuals or families, but as a family.
Thanks to independence, each country develops certain values which continue to develop over time. The values of a nation represent the tradition, history and experiences of its people since its creation. The values of India and China are many thousands of years old, while the values of the newly created nations like USA, Israel, Australia and Pakistan are quite new.
National values are often codified in their laws which aim to give equality and justice to all citizens. There is great diversity in these laws as each country’s requirements are different. Violation of national values are treated as criminal offenses which are punished by the state. Thus, countries with strong national values enforce their laws very strictly as they place the interest of the country above the interest of the individual.
5. Moral values
While the legal values of a country or society are documented and implemented, they are insufficient for the normal functioning of the state. The ideal state is one where the state does not have to enforce any laws as citizens voluntarily follow the laws of the land. However, this rarely happens as all state laws are drafted by people who are in power or those who have influence over powerful people. These powerful men ensure that laws are framed in favor of the few and not in favor of the masses. Thus, over a period of time, the enforcement of laws creates a class of people who are extremely powerful and wealthy, while the majority of the population lives a life of misery and poverty.
However, the inequality and injustice created by law has been largely reduced due to the prevalence of moral values in society, which should not be codified in statute books. However, moral values are passed from one generation to another by tradition. For example, the sanctity of the institution of marriage in India has kept the divorce rate at a minimum despite having the provision of divorce on the law books like every other western country. Moral laws are collectively enforced by society. While everyone wants to be loved and respected by society, moral values are often more powerful in keeping a person on the right path than legal enforcement.
6. Spiritual values
All values adopted by men create exclusivity in human beings as these values are different for every society and indeed for every man. So values are the source of conflicts in the world as every person or nation strongly believes in their values as right. However, all these values are non-permanent and transitory which change with time and space. The values of the current generation are not the same as the values of the previous generation.
Yet there is one component in all values that never changes. It has remained the same throughout the long years of human evolution. These values are eternal as they never change. Therefore, people often call such values as spiritual or divine since it never dies and its origin is also unknown.
These are spiritual values.
Spiritual values are often attributed to God and called divine. Spiritual values include love, compassion, justice, truth, etc. It is human nature to imbibe these values regardless of their religion, race, culture or nationality. These values are so universal that all human beings seem to understand them without being taught.
Spiritual values unite all human beings in this world. Because of these spiritual values we want justice and cannot see injustice in this world. The feelings of love and compassion transcended all barriers of religion, race and nationality. Spiritual values cannot be eliminated by man and these are universal.
Conflict of values
No person can have only one set of values and all human beings are guided by the combination of all values. However, the dominant value in each person is different that arises due to birth in a certain family, culture, religion or nationality. Values also change with a person’s age as the same person transforms from an individual to a family man. When a person grows up and earns his living, he should work in some profession where professional values are developed. Even national values are rooted in people because of the common value that citizens share. However, as men grow older, they tend to become spiritual and develop spiritual values. So the six values are always dominant in any society which keeps the society moving and united.
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