1990S Proposed That Animal Welfare Could Be Evaluated Objectively By Artificial Intelligence Around Us

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Artificial Intelligence Around Us

During the 1980s, there was a lot of interest in the field of Artificial Intelligence in America. The great expectations of the 1980s were followed by the skepticism of the 1990s, which highlighted the limitations of the capabilities of our current computers. The skepticism of the 1990s is now largely over, and one of the major scientific and industrial challenges of the 21st century is the development of Artificial Intelligent Systems (AIS).

The development of AIS aims to create new technologies that will provide solutions to problems in the fields of electronics and heavy industries, agriculture, energy and resource conservation, transportation, human health, public safety, national security and other fields.

Speaking at a conference in Buenos Aires in 1995, Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. (Vice President of the United States from 1993-2001 under President Bill Clinton) said: “These highways, or more precisely, networks of distributed intelligence, will allow us to share information, connect and communicate as a global community. From these connections we will derive strong and sustainable economic progress, strong democracies, better solutions to global and local environmental challenges, improved health care, and ultimately, a greater sense of stewardship common to our small planet.

Historically, AIS emerged in the last century as a result of the evolution of human-machine systems, in which human and machine functions are interconnected for the operation of these systems. For example, a craftsman working on a work lathe, a driver and his work machine, and workers and machines in a power plant all form man-machine systems. In a human-machine system, the human operator provides purpose, direction, and integration. The machine executes everything according to the given instructions and gives feedback.

In the process of evolution of man-machine systems, the role of man has decreased compared to the role of the machines he uses. To execute routine functions, cars were increasingly equipped with control subsystems, and the resulting car systems were referred to as “semi-automatic” systems. Progressively, many semi-automatic systems have been converted into automatic systems.

Thanks to computer systems, a fantastic change has taken place in many areas of technology over the past few decades. Earlier machines had the role of executing tasks given to them by human beings. Today, these machines are equipped with highly advanced programmable control systems and various types of sensory devices, enabling them to perform many human tasks, including creative problem solving. Meanwhile, engineers and scientists working on bionic technologies are getting closer to creating machines that can perform some human functions for people with disabilities. As a result, the prerequisites for the birth of artificial intelligence appeared.

Ray Kurzweil, in his very interesting book, The Singularity is Real, found an apt metaphor to describe the process of dispersal of computer systems. He commented, ‘The advancement of computer performance is like water slowly flooding the landscape. Half a century ago, it began to flood the lowlands, driving out human calculators and census clerks but leaving most of us dry. Now the flood has reached the lowlands and our posts there are thinking of withdrawing. We feel secure in our peaks, but at the current rate, they too will sink within another half century.’

It is a fair statement about Artificial Intelligence (AI) as well. In recent years, several AI programs and systems have successfully replicated selected functions of the human brain and enhanced human cognitive and decision-making capabilities. As a result, some machines that exist now can perform the knowledge-based functions of a human operator, but with better quality. The inventor of the Lisp programming language, John McCarthy, who also coined the term “Artificial Intelligence” in his 1956 Dartmouth Conference proposal, defines AI as “the science and engineering of making intelligent machines.”

The term “intelligence” is derived from the Latin “intellectus” and is defined as “the mind, the powers of human thinking.” According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, “intelligence” has many meanings:

o the ability to learn or understand or cope with new or difficult situations: for example, the skillful use of reason or the ability to apply knowledge to manipulate the environment or to think abstractly against criteria target

o information about an enemy or potential enemy or an area; and an agency engaged in obtaining such information

o mental acuity

o the eternal basic quality of the Divine Mind (Christian Science)

o the ability to perform the function of the computer

It makes sense to analyze the definition, “ability to perform computer function”. On the face of it, an executable computer program that provides computer functions (for example, calculations or writing text) does not have intelligence. However, consider for a moment that “human or animal instinct,” is the natural tendency of a living organism toward a certain behavior. Based on our knowledge of computers, we can calculate “instinct” as a set of programs written in genetic material such as DNA.

When a worker performs his tasks automatically, it means that he has in his brain the necessary “programs” for automatic actions. In part, these programs were created by the special training he received to enable him to do his job. Innate and acquired programming are all part of human intellect or intelligence. It is the same for an executable computer program. The program carries a part of the intellect of its creators, translated into a language (code) that the machine understands.

Therefore, an executable computer program has some intelligence. Modern computer systems that can, for example, choose an optimal decision, or make a rational analysis of external influences on this decision, are intelligent systems. This is why AI is a powerful resource for solutions to a diverse range of problems (including informal ones) for which there are currently no known solutions.

Historically, the term “intelligence” was associated with government organizations (agencies) dedicated to gathering information for national security and defense purposes, such as the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in America. Today, this term has a broader meaning, with practical applications in real systems and products. AI methods include elements found in cybernetics, computer science, psychology, neuroscience, cognitive science, linguistics, operations research, economics, control theory, and mathematics, among others. AI also connects and overlaps with fields such as robotics, control systems, planning, data mining, and logistics.

Artificial intelligence systems are the realization of the science of artificial intelligence. In other words, AI can be called “Application of Artificial Intelligence”. The term “AI” is also used to describe an intelligence property of new machines or programs. Many AI experts are predicting that by the middle of this century, intelligent cars will be all around us. Machines like robots already touch our lives. Automobiles, electronics and aircraft are assembled and tested with the help of various robotic machines. The reality that computers have saved the world from the information explosion while becoming affordable for students and other everyday users is largely due to the use of smart machines. Almost all the cars around us are rapidly becoming “intelligent”, with the help of smart applications. The revenue generated by the AI ​​and robotics industry is now measured in the billions of dollars per year.

With advanced computer-based systems used in traffic control or production control, it is reasonable to retain the human ability to solve tight problems in real time. Human-machine systems can exist with different levels of automation (from manual to autonomous), and artificial intelligence systems can have different degrees, from simple to very complex.

Today, many applications of Artificial Intelligence are present in industry, business, medicine, automotive navigation, communication, military operations, space exploration, etc. The average person may have little or no knowledge of the actual applications of AI, yet they encounter the results of AI many times every day. For example, the amazing functionality of everyday machines such as a car, a sewing machine, kitchen appliances and the Internet, or the quality of television images, movies and telephone communications are all the result of Artificial Intelligence Systems being used in many common things. high-tech products.

AIS will surely become common in the very near future, as the widespread use of these systems will bring more prosperity and increased well-being to the entire population of our planet. Intelligent automation systems, various advisory programs and bots can and will do the work that we either cannot or wish not to do. The article is an excerpt from the author’s book Artificial Intelligence All Around Us, published by Bookstand Publishing

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