1 Which Is A Difference Between Plant And Animal Cells Excretion in Plants

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Excretion in Plants

Introduction to excretion in plants

Excretion is the process of eliminating waste materials from the body. Excretion in plants is much simpler than that of animals and as such does not present any serious problem in plants. There are several reasons for this:-

1. The rate of catabolism is relatively much slower in plants than in animals of the same body weight and therefore the rate of accumulation of body waste is much slower.

Introduction to excretion in plants

Excretion is the process of eliminating waste materials from the body. Excretion in plants is much simpler than that of animals and as such does not present any serious problem in plants. There are several reasons for this:-

1. The rate of catabolism is relatively much slower in plants than in animals of the same body weight and therefore the rate of accumulation of body waste is much slower.

2. Plants use many of the waste products of catabolism in their anabolic process. Water and CO2 produced during respiration are used by green plants in photosynthesis. NH4 formed from the breakdown of proteins and other nitrogenous compounds is used by plants for the synthesis of new proteins.

3. In plants, metabolism is based primarily on carbohydrates rather than proteins, and the end products of carbohydrate metabolism are much less toxic than proteins, so the excretory needs of plants are reduced.

In plants there is no definite excretory system or organ for the removal of waste. Easily soluble excretory products are removed by diffusion or osmosis. In high plants, waste is deposited in various parts of the body, which are later eliminated.

METHODS OF EXCRETION IN PLANTS

Leaf fall: Deciduous plants such as tobacco, tea, belladonna, get rid of excretory substances stored within the leaves through leaf fall.

Bark Shedding: Trees that have secondary growth shed their bark at irregular intervals where the excretory substances are stored as in Rauvolfia.

Fruit drop: Excretory substances are stored within the seeds and fruit pericarp, which are eliminated from the plant body along with fruit drop. Examples are Datura, banana, papaya, etc.

Flower shedding: Excretory materials are stored in flower bracts (Artemisia), sepals and petals (Santonine) are removed along with flower shedding.

Diffusion: Gaseous excretory materials such as CO2, ethylene are excreted by diffusion through stomata, lenses, etc.

Storage: Excretory materials such as chewing gum, latex resin, are stored within specialized cells.

Leaching: Leaching is a process of diffusion of water soluble substances such as salts, hormones, inhibitors etc. from the underground parts of the plant body into the soil.

EXCRETORY PRODUCTS OF PLANTS

Organic acids: Organic acids such as citric acid in lemon, tartaric acid in tamarind, are formed as a by-product of respiration. Organic acids are abundant in leaves and fruits.

Gums: Gums are formed by the decomposition of the cellulose of the cell wall. Gum arabic, balsam are common examples.

Resins: Resins are non-volatile substances possibly formed by the oxidation of essential oils. Pure resin is hard and brittle like shellac, varnish.

Latex: Latex is an emulsion of proteins, gums, resins, etc. It is a milky fluid secreted by the cells or vessels in which it is present. Latex is the main commercial source of rubber.

Essential oils: These are volatile oils present in fruits, flowers, etc. such as sandalwood oil, citrus oil, lavender oil.

Alkaloids: These are nitrogenous waste products formed in certain plant cells. Common alkaloids include quinine, nicotine, morphine, caffeine, cocaine, atropine, etc.

Tannin is a type of bitter residue used for tanning leather, for the preparation of paint, etc.

Glycosides are the breakdown products of carbohydrates. Digitoxin, a glycoside is used to prepare digitalis.

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